KANSERE KARŞI KAROTENOİD DESTEKLERİNDEN YARARLANINIZ
Karotenoid zengini besinlerin yararları nelerdir ?
Serbest radikallerin hücrelere zarar vermesini engeller
A vitamini kaynağıdır
Bağışıklık sistemini güçlendirir
Üreme sisteminin düzgün çalışmasını sağlar
Hangi besinlerde karotenoid bulunmaktadır ?
Beta-karoten ve Lutein açısından en zengin besinler :
Turuncu renkli meyve ve sebzeler önemli miktarda beta-karoten ve beta-kriptokasantin içermektedirler.
Karotenoid açısından zengin besinler :
Likopen içeren besinler :
Karotenoid içeren hayvansal besinler
Not : Baharatlar mevcut karotenoidi hatırı sayılır bir oranda arttırmaktadır. Dolayısıyla kırmızı ve acı biber de karotenoid alımının hızlanması istenen durumlarda destekleyicidirler.
Hangi sağlık durumları karotenoid takviyesi gerektirir ?
İnsan bağışıklık yetmezliği virüsü (AIDS)
Yaşa bağlı makula dejenerasyonu
Rahim ağzı kanseri
Erkek ve kadında kısırlık
Hangi ilaçlar karoteni etkilemektedir ?
Cholestyramine, Colestipol ve Colestid gibi koletrol düşürücü ve safra asidi sekestranları diye adlandırılan ilaçlar kandaki karotenoid miktarını azaltmaktadırlar. Buna ek olarak, sterollerle zenginleştirilmiş margarinler de karotenoid emilimini azaltabilmektedirler. Özellikle abur cubur gibi gıdalara yağ yerine eklenen sentetik yağ Olestra da karotenoid emilimini düşürmektedir.
Diğer besinler karotenoidlerle nasıl bir etkileşim içindedirler ?
Beta karoten takviyeleri kanda lutein miktarını azaltmakta, emilim için karotenoidlerin kendileriyle rekabet ettiklerini öngörmektedir. Diete dahil edilen pektin karotenoidlerin emilimini azaltabilmektedir.
The term carotenoid refers to a family of about 600 different plant pigments that function as antioxidants . The yellow, orange, and many of the red pigments in fruits, vegetables, and plant materials are usually carotenoids. In fall, when deciduous trees prepare for winter and stop their chlorophyll production, the green color of the leaves fade and the orange, yellow, and red colors of the carotenoids in the leaves are revealed before the leaves die and fall to the ground. Plants appear to produce carotenoids to protect their stems and leaves from the energy of the sun. Ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths can generate molecules called free radicals that can damage living cells. Free radicals are molecules, or fragments of molecules, that are unstable and highly reactive. Free radicals are produced as the result of a normal molecule losing or gaining an electron. In normal, stable molecules, electrons associate in pairs. However, radiation from the sun can result in the removal of an electron from a molecule and the formation of free radical. Carotenoids as antioxidants limit free radical damage by donating electrons to quench, or neutralize, the oxidant radicals.
In human nutrition , carotenoids, as antioxidants, serve to protect cells from the danger of free radicals that may be produced by the body during metabolism or by cigarette smoke, sunlight, radiation, pollutants, or even stress . Tens of thousands of free radicals are created in the body every second. When a free radical captures an electron from another molecule, a new free radical is created as the second molecule has a lone, unpaired electron. This new free radical seeks to capture another electron and become normal again. This continual process of forming free radicals becomes a chain reaction. Unless quenched, these free radicals can damage DNA, fats, and proteins. However, the body has a defense against these free radicals. With proper nourishment, the body can make sufficient quantities of antioxidant enzymes and substrates for those enzymes that can facilitate the quenching of free radical reactions by antioxidants. These enzymes include superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. In addition to these enzymes produced by the body, antioxidant nutrients taken into the body through foods or through dietary supplements also can surrender electrons to the free radicals without adding to the chain reaction, thus terminating the free radical reactions. Antioxidant nutrients include vitamins A, C, and E, bioflavonoids , lipoic acid, and carotenoids.
Despite the large number of carotenoids in nature, only about 50 are present in foods that people in the United States eat, and only about 14 of those have been identified in blood, an indication of what is absorbed in the human body. All carotenoids are fat-soluble compounds, meaning that they can dissolve in fats and oils, but not in water . The carotenoid family consists of smaller families of pigments called carotenes and xanthophylls. Carotenes are hydrocarbons, containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms, while xanthophylls also contain oxygen. The carotenes have been studied more than the other carotenoids. The ones of most interest in human nutrition are beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and lycopene . Important xanthophylls include lutein , astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin.
As acceptance of the many health benefits of carotenoids increases and continues to be proven, the addition of five individual carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin) were added to the National Cancer Institute’s Diet History Questionnaire. The carotenoids appear to have many health benefits, but more research is required to confirm many of the health effects seen so far and to identify additional benefits.
As one of the most common carotenoids, beta-carotene is the most well-known and well-studied carotenoid. It is found in carrots, pumpkins, peaches, and sweet potatoes. Beta-carotene is the primary precursor to vitamin A . With the aid of dioxygenase enzymes, the human body can split one molecule of beta-carotene into two vitamin A molecules. Vitamin A has many vital functions in the human body, including being involved in: (1) the growth and repair of body tissues, (2) the formation of bones and teeth, (3) the resistance of the body to infection, and (4) the development of healthy eye tissues. Vitamin A deficiency symptoms include night blindness , dry eyes, dry, rough skin, impaired bone growth, and susceptibility to respiratory infections . Vitamin A, is a fat soluble vitamin, can be stored in the body long-term and can reach toxic levels over time if amounts above recommended levels (10,000 IU for adults and only 6,000 IU for pregnant women) are ingested. Too much vitamin A can cause headaches, vision problems, nausea, vomiting , an enlarged liver or spleen, birth defects, and even death at very high levels. Beta-carotene is a better source of vitamin A than vitamin A supplements because it is only converted to vitamin A on an as-needed basis; excess beta-carotene is stored in the body and unlike vitamin A, is not toxic when taken in amounts in excess of body needs. Beta-carotene also improves immune function, increases lung capacity, reduces DNA damage, may provide protection from the sun, and may lessen the risks of some types of cancer. However, for people who drink and smoke excessively, beta-carotene may increase their risk of lung cancer .
Alpha-carotene, another common carotenoid, is normally found in the same foods as beta-carotene. It is similar to beta-carotene in structure, with one of the ring structures being beta-ionone. However, the other ring is different, so one molecule of alpha-carotene yields only one molecule of vitamin A. Alpha-carotene has been found to have powerful anticancer properties in cell-culture studies.
Lycopene is often the most common carotenoid in the American diet because it is found in tomato products, including pizza and spaghetti sauce. It is also present in lesser amounts in watermelon, pink grapefruit, guava, and apricots. Lycopene does not produce vitamin A. However, lycopene in tomato juice and spaghetti and pizza sauces has been associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer in men. In late 2001, the first clinical trial showed that lycopene supplementation could even slow progression of prostate cancer growths.
Cooked tomato sauces were to found to be associated with greater health benefits, compared to uncooked tomatoes, because the lycopene in the cooked tomatoes was more easily absorbed. Also, since lycopene is fat-soluble, absorption increased when it was mixed with oil in the sauces. Uncooked tomatoes also demonstrated health benefits, though to a lesser degree, especially when they were used in a salad with a oil-based dressing or in a sandwich with fat-containing meat. Lycopene may help in the prevention of other cancers as well as protect against heart attacks. A study late in 2001 indicated that lycopene may also help patients with exercise-induced asthma . Research is continuing on the potential health benefits of lycopene.
Lutein, which is almost as common as beta-carotene in the American diet, and zeaxanthin are xanthophylls found in kale, spinach, broccoli, corn, alfalfa , and egg yolks. Both are components of the macula of the eye, a small area in the center of the retina responsible for detailed vision. These carotenoids may prevent and slow macular degeneration , a leading cause of blindness in the elderly. As antioxidants, they reduce the amount of free radical damage to the macula. Lutein may also help prevent the formation of cataracts , reduce the risk of heart disease , and protect against breast cancer .
Astaxanthin is a minor carotenoid that serves as a pigment in aquatic animals such salmon, trout, and Antarctic krill (small shrimp-like crustaceans that feed on algae and that serve as a food source for other sea animals such as whales). Astaxanthin is a strong antioxidant that appears to enhance the immune system and protect against cancer. It also may protect against UVA light, a wavelength of ultraviolet light that can cause sunburn and skin cancer .
Cryptoxanthin is a minor carotenoid found in peaches, papayas, tangerines, and oranges. Cryptoxanthin is second to beta-carotene in the amount of dietary carotene converted to vitamin A. Along with other carotenoids, it forms an antioxidant barrier in the human skin. It also appears to protect women from cervical cancer.
There are many other minor dietary carotenoids that most likely provide significant health benefits. A diet that includes many types of fruits and vegetables is important for supplying those nutrients and their associated health benefits.
Although not classified as essential nutrients, carotenoids are important substances in human food sources, especially in fruits, vegetables, and plant greens, that provide many health benefits. In addition, some are precursors to vitamin A. They are primarily consumed through the diet; however the more common carotenoids are available as dietary supplements.
Beta-carotene, lutein, and lycopene are sold as individual carotenoid supplements. Beta-carotene is available in two forms, natural and synthetic. The natural form is preferred to the synthetic, as the natural form appears to be a stronger antioxidant. Algae are an abundant source of beta-carotene and are used to produce supplements. Their presence in a supplement is usually identified on the label as Dunaliella salina or as some related type of algae. D. salina produces 10 to 100 times more beta-carotene than carrots. It grows in areas with strong sunlight, high temperatures, and salty water, environments where antioxidants are greatly needed for protection from free radicals. A dose for adults for beta-carotene may range up to 10–15 mg, or 25,000 IU, daily.
Lutein is prepared from marigold petals as either free lutein or lutein ester. Both forms are absorbed well by the body, though preliminary research has shown that lutein ester may be assimilated slightly better and be retained slightly longer than free lutein. For general health, 4–6 mg of lutein should be satisfactory. For those at risk for macular degeneration, 30–40 mg daily may be useful.
Lycopene supplements are prepared from tomatoes. A typical daily dose is 4 mg, which is the amount in one large ripe tomato. Zeaxanthin is not available as a supplement. However, the body can convert some lutein to zeaxanthin. Also lutein supplements usually contain some zeaxanthin.
Mixed carotenoid supplements are available, with different formulations. For example, one typical formula contains mostly beta-carotene, with smaller amounts of lutein, zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin. Another type contains less beta-carotene but a higher percentage of alpha-carotene. Mixed carotenes may also be included in some multi-vitamin and multi-oxidant supplements. Labels of supplements should be read carefully to determine the types of carotenoids present and their dosages.
A person consuming the typical American diet obtains only about 1.5 mg of carotenoids per day. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), as established by the United States National Research Council for the purpose of evaluating diets , for vitamin A is 1,000 RE (retinol equivalents), or 6 mg of beta-carotene. The USRDA, established by the United States Food and Drug Administration as a consumer convenience for labeling purposes, is 5,000 IU of vitamin A, or 3 mg of beta-carotene. The United States Department of Agriculture and the National Cancer Institute have suggested that perhaps 5–6 mg of carotenoids should be a dietary target. A study completed in 2001 found that the carotenoids present in fruit increased as fruit ripened and that greater concentrations can be found in the peels than in the pulp.
To enhance dietary health benefits, it may be useful to supplement a diet high in fruits and vegetables with an additional 10–15 mg of carotenoids per day. Those with poor diets may consider supplementation with 25 mg of supplementation per day. Since it is not possible to put every beneficial carotenoid in a supplement, the best way to obtain a wide variety of carotenoids is to eat a diet containing an assortment of carotenoid-containing foods.
Research has not yet answered the question of whether a person requires additional vitamin A if he is taking beta-carotene supplements. Vitamin A is only available in foods of animal origin, so vegetarians should consider using vitamin A supplements. Persons with diseases such as diabetes may not be as efficient in converting beta-carotene into vitamin A, so they need to get some from their diet or from supplements.
A study conducted to investigate the effects of vitamin E and beta-carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers indicated that, in the subjects who were heavy smokers and also were heavy drinkers, beta-carotene supplements may result in increased adverse health effects, including a slight increase in cancer. Another study of smokers indicated that high supplemental doses of beta-carotene and vitamin A increased the risk of lung cancer (though in former smokers, beta-carotene and vitamin A decreased the chances of developing lung cancer). Additional studies are being conducted to further investigate the effects of beta-carotene supplementation. However, it would be prudent for those who drink heavily or smoke to avoid the use of beta-carotene supplements and vitamin A.
A person taking high doses of beta-carotene and other carotenoids may develop a yellowish color on his feet and hands. There is no indication that this is a toxic effect. If the color is undesirable, the individual should stop taking the supplements for a month or so, and then resume them at a lower dose.
Carotenoids seem to work best together in a complementary and synergistic manner to provide antioxidant and other health benefits; they also seem to work well with other antioxidants. Therefore the use of a mixed carotenoid supplement in combination with a multi-antioxidant formula, along with a diet rich in a variety of fruits and vegetables, is most desirable.
Carotenoid supplements are readily assimilated by the body, but to optimize absorption, they should be taken with the highest fat-content meal of the day.
Research has not yet determined how the consumption of one type of carotenoid as a supplement may affect the absorption of other carotenoids. One study showed that beta-carotene reduced the absorption of canthaxanthin, another showed that beta-carotene reduced the levels of lutein in the body, while other studies have shown that beta-carotene actually increased levels of other carotenoids in the body. This is an area that researchers are continuing to investigate to gain a better understanding of potential interactions.
Nutrition and Cells
Our bodies are composed of several trillions of cells – these cells have specific duties and work together towards maintaining health.
Muscle cells aid movement, bones are sculpted by bone-resorbing, and bone-forming cells, the lymphatic and immune system cells are important in our defence against disease, the stomach cells put out gastric juice and enzymes, the liver cells are designed to secrete bile, detoxify, to regulate thyroid hormone and blood sugar levels, to store nutrients (such as iron, vitamin A, D, E, F, and K) for future use, and play a major role in the metabolism of the three kinds of food – the liver alone has one thousand functions which are performed by the liver cells.
Every tissue in the body is made of cells – organs are organized clusters of related cells.
Although cells differ in their functions – they require the same basic nutrients.
Detoxification and Cleansing
Emotions and Beliefs
Menopause and Hormons
Stress and body imbalances
Children & Health
What are the contributing factors to the mutation of the cells or the aging process?
If new cells were exact duplicates of already existing healthy cells – we would never age or get sick.
The primary causes of misduplication of a normal cell is when we do not have all the necessary components for the cell to function properly – and when we have excess of other things that should not be there.
The contributors to mutation or impairment of the cells are: diet, lifestyle, stress, sugar imbalances, radiation, lack of oxygen, thyroid problems, accumulation of toxins, lack of physical activity, and poor digestion.
Body tissues cannot be repaired unless all of the necessary components to power the cells are there. If the cell is lacking in just one nutrient, in addition to being unable to repair itself or create a new cell – it now also has to remove the excess waste created by the unsuccessful biochemical processes.
Enzymes, Vitamins and Minerals, Antioxidants
Enzymes “The spark of life”
We have 6,100 different types of enzymes working throughout our bodies causing reactions to take place – humans could not exist without enzymes.
Enzymes are key players in all biochemical activities that occur in the body – they are essential for proper digestion, stimulating the brain, providing cellular energy and for repairing all tissues, organs, and cells.
Enzymes are protein-based substances – some last 20 minutes and others can last several weeks – as they age and die, they are quickly replaced by new enzymes of the same type.
Coenzymes and Cofactors
Enzymes can only do their important work when other molecules called coenzymes and cofactors are available in the body.
Cofactors are the minerals and coenzymes are the vitamins. All vitamins and minerals are required if enzymes are to do their job effectively.
Our bodies do not produce minerals and vitamins – they must be obtained from our food and through supplements.
Body pH level
Enzyme activity works best when a healthy pH level is maintained in the body.
There are numerous factors in our daily lives that can inhibit and destroy important enzymes in our food and bodies such as stress, chemicals in foods, irradiation, and lifestyle.
When the body becomes depleted of enzymatic activity illnesses such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypoglycemia, thyroid problems, malabsorption problems, etc. soon follows.
What do vitamins and minerals do for our bodies?
Historically, vitamins were discovered primarily through the deficiency diseases caused by their absence in the diet.
Vitamins are essential for growth, vitality and health – they are necessary for digestion, elimination and resistance to disease.
Vitamins help to convert carbohydrates, proteins and fats into more bioavailable and metabolically useful forms.
Minerals come from the earth – if a mineral is not contained in the soil – it will not be in the food grown there.
Minerals are essential to our physical and mental health and are a basic part of all cells, particularly, blood, nerve, and muscle cells, as well as bone, teeth and soft tissues.
The special electrolyte minerals, sodium, potassium, and chloride, help to regulate the fluid and the acid-base (pH) balance of our bodies.
Vitamins and minerals work synergistically – this means that these nutrients work as catalysts to each other to facilitate better absorption and assimilation.
The dosage of most vitamins and minerals supplement available today does not meet our daily requirements – in addition, some of these go through the digestive system into the colon, undissolved.
We obtain some of our daily requirements for vitamins and minerals through our diet but it is nowhere nearly enough – the increasing stress in our lives, chemicals in foods and the environment, the depleted minerals in the soil, high sugar intake, and lifestyle, increases our needs for a good quality balanced vitamin and mineral supplement.
A daily supplement to support and maintain a healthy body should be taken from early childhood on. It is the ONE WAY to ensure that the body has what it needs to function properly.
Antioxidants are powerful substances that help protect the body from harmful free radicals.
Free radicals are atoms or group of atoms that are highly unstable – because of their ability to join with other compounds – free radicals can be detrimental to our bodies. The problem occurs when there is an excessive formation of free radicals – this creates a domino effect – overproduction of free radicals stimulates the formation of more free radicals.
This leads to damage to heart muscle cells, nerve cells, and immune system sensor cells – and in turn to heart disease, cancer, impaired immune system, infections, and other degenerative diseases. Calcium levels in the body may be off-balance – and this can lead to other health problems.
Free radical damage is also known to be the primary cause of the aging process.
The good news is that antioxidants appear to neutralize the free radicals.
Carotenoids are some of the most powerful antioxidants – they help maintain the structural integrity of the cells and the healthy functioning of the mucous lining – it has been shown to improve immune response by stimulating T-helper cell activity – just in these ways alone it appears that the carotenoids would be greatly beneficial in preventing the development of cancer.
ZEAXANTHIN CONCENTRATION IN FRUITS & VEGETABLES
PER 100 gPER SERVING
sweet, yellow, canned, whole kernel528 mcg432.96 mcg1/2 cup
11457Spinach, raw331 mcg185.36 mcg1 cup
cooked, boiled, without salt266 mcg170.24 mcg1/2 cup
cooked, boiled, without salt179 mcg161.1 mcg1/2 cup
09215Orange juice, frozen concentrate
unsweetened, diluted80 mcg149.12 mcg3/4 cup
cos or romaine187 mcg104.72 mcg1 cup
all commercial varieties74 mcg96.94 mcg1 medium
(mandarin oranges)112 mcg94.08 mcg1 medium
green, canned, regular pack58 mcg49.3 mcg1/2 cup
iceberg, includes crisp head types70 mcg39.2 mcg1 cup
ZEAXANTHIN CONCENTRATION IN FRUITS & VEGETABLES
NDB FOOD ZEAXANTHIN SERVING
PER 100 g PER SERVING SIZE
11172 Corn, drained
Sweet, yellow, canned, whole kernel
528 mcg 432.96 mcg 1/2 cup
11457 Spinach, raw 331 mcg 185.36 mcg 1 cup
11162 Collards, drained
Cooked, boiled, without salt
266 mcg 170.24 mcg 1/2 cup
11458 Spinach, drained
Cooked, boiled, without salt
179 mcg 161.1 mcg 1/2 cup
09215 Orange juice from frozen concentrate
80 mcg 149.12 mcg 3/4 cup
cos or romaine
187 mcg 104.72 mcg 1 cup
raw, all commercial varieties
74 mcg 96.94 mcg 1 medium
(mandarin oranges), raw
112 mcg 94.08 mcg 1 medium
11308 Peas, drained
green, canned, regular pack
58 mcg 49.3 mcg 1/2 cup
iceberg, includes crisp head types, raw
70 mcg 39.2 mcg 1 cup
11056 Beans, drained
snap, green, canned, regular pack
44 mcg 29.92 mcg 1/2 cup
11091 Broccoli, drained
cooked, boiled, without salt
23 mcg 17.94 mcg 1/2 cup
11144 Celery, drained
cooked, boiled, without salt
8 mcg 6 mcg 1/2 cup
09236 Peaches, raw 6 mcg 5.22 mcg 1 medium
11960 Carrots, baby, raw 23 mcg 2.3 mcg 1 medium
11143 Celery, raw 3 mcg 1.8 mcg 1/2 cup
NDB= Nutritional Data Base mcg=micrograms 1000 micrograms=1 milligram