COENZYME-A VE COENZYME-Q10’UN HAYATIMIZDAKİ ROLÜ-ROLE OF COENZYME-A AND COENZYME-Q10 A IN OUR HEALTH

COENZYME-A VE COENZYME

-Q10’UN HAYATIMIZDAKİ ROLÜ-ROLE OF COENZYME AND COENZYME -Q10 A IN OUR HEALTH

What is an enzyme?

An enzyme is a protein substance which acts as a catalyst to initiate or accelerate a chemical reaction that supports digestion or metabolism by specifically acting upon a particular substance or class of substances. Although enzymes are usually not destroyed during such chemical reactions they pass out of the body and should be replenished on a daily basis.

How do digestive enzymes work?

Digestive enzymes operate in the body’s digestive tract. These enzymes initiate the chemical reactions that break down and digest the proteins (amino acids), carbohydrates (sugars and starches), and lipids (fats and oils) that are contained in foods. These reactions begin when any food enters the mouth and continue as the food is chewed, swallowed, passed through the stomach into the intestines and absorbed through the walls of the small intestine for transmission by the bloodstream to other parts of the body.
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What is Coenzyme-A?

Coenzyme-A is the most active metabolic enzyme in the human body. It operates in the body’s cells and blood where it initiates hundreds of important processes in the body. Coenzyme-A is expended by the metabolic processes of the body and constantly needs replenishing.

In reference to your Coenzyme-A article, it’s unclear about whether your product actually contains coenzyme A itself, or if it contains the three components the body uses to synthesize coenzyme A (pantothenic acid, cysteine and ATP).

The above composition refers to the molecule Coenzyme A as it is found in the cells once it has gone through numerous biochemical reactions.

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In one of the documents I have about your products, it lists the proprietary formula for your Coenzyme A products as panthethine, calcium pyruvate, magnesium malate, acetyl-L-carnitine, L-cysteine, pantothenic acid and calcium. Why isn’t there any ATP in your formula?

The Proprietary Precusor formuala Coenzyme-ATM represents all of the compounds that were likely to have participated in the periodic table of elements during the evolutionary process of the human cell. Please refer to the research articles titled “The Origins of Life” and “The Primordial Soup”. This is Dr. Skouras’ hypothesis that was published during the conceptual development phase of his discovery. All of the scientific references can be found within that document.
Is Coenzyme-A the same as Coenzyme Q10 and Coenzyme 1 (NADH/Enada)?

They are all metabolic enzymes and they are all intricately involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) of energy production for the body. That is where the similarity ends. Coenzyme-A has over 100 critical functions in the human body and is known as the most active metabolic enzyme in the human body.

ANALOGY: Coenzyme 1 (NADH/Enada) is the “spark plug” to the TCA cycle of energy production. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) would be considered the “oxygenation” of that process, while Coenzyme-A is the “ignition switch” to the whole process of energy production.

Many people know that Coenzyme Q10 and Coenzyme 1 (NADH) are important enzymes, but the bottom line is that Coenzyme-A is actually more important because it is required to initiate the chemical reactions that involve the utilization of Coenzyme Q10 and Coenzyme 1. If Coenzyme-A is not available in sufficient amounts then the human body cannot utilize Coenzyme Q10, Coenzyme 1 and many of the other nutrients the body needs to stay healthy.

SPECIAL NOTE: Coenzyme Q10 and Coenzyme 1 (NADH) are the actual enzyme molecule. Our Coenzyme ATM product is Acetyl Coenzyme A ModulatorsTM Precursor Formula.

The benefit of our Acetyl Coenzyme A ModulatorsTM Precursor Formula is that it provides a balanced combination of components that are used by the cells of the body to manufacture and utilize Coenzyme-A. We developed this nutraceutical formula because there are no food sources for Coenzyme-A as a chemical compound. The cells of the body manufacture Coenzyme-A from ATP, cysteine, and pantothenic acid. All three of these Coenzyme-A components must be provided by way of the foods or synthetic dietary supplements digested by the body. At this time, Coenzyme-A is not commercially available in the form of a one compound synthetic dietary supplement. Further, it is doubtful that a compound of Coenzyme-A would be an effective dietary supplement because the digestive process would break such a compound back down into its components before it entered the bloodstream. Coenzyme-A is not manufactured during the digestive process, it is manufactured in the cells of the body! This is why the nutraceutical formulas offered by Coenzyme-A Technologies Inc.TM are based upon a balanced combination of components that are used by the cells of the body to manufacture and utilize Coenzyme-A.

How do metabolic enzymes work?

Metabolic enzymes operate in the body’s cells and blood. Metabolism is a general term for the biochemical processes through which the body changes air, food and other materials into the substances it needs to function properly. Metabolic enzymes facilitate the chemical reactions that carry out the processes of metabolism. Typically, metabolic enzymes are composed of two components: (1) an “apoenzyme” that identifies which molecule within a cell requires a specific chemical reaction and (2) a “coenzyme” that initiates the specific chemical reaction.

The body’s primary sources of energy are produced at the cellular level by metabolic processes. Coenzyme-A (CoA), Acetyl Coenzyme-A (acetyl CoA), and Coenzyme Ubiquinone (CoQ10), together with certain B-vitamins and their coenzyme forms are necessary for such energy production during: (1) the tricarboxylic acid cycle (the TCA cycle, Krebs cycle, or citric acid cycle) and (2) the glycolitic cycle.

The TCA cycle and glycolitic cycle are responsible for the production of about 95% of the energy the body requires to sustain life. The TCA cycle requires oxygen; it provides the most efficient chemical pathway for the body’s production of aerobic energy. The glycolitic cycle does not require oxygen; it provides an inefficient chemical pathway for the body’s production of short interval high outputs of anaerobic energy.

What are coenzymes made of?

Coenzymes are generally made from the B vitamins such as B-1 thiamin, B-2 riboflavin, B-3 niacin, B-5 pantothenic acid, B-6 pyridoxine, or B-12 cobalamin. Coenzymes may be a vitamin, contain one, or be manufactured in the body by combining a vitamin with one or more other substances (as in the case of Coenzyme-A). Coenzyme-A is a very important coenzyme that deserves special recognition. While it is not uncommon for a coenzyme to be a requirement of several metabolic processes that may facilitate a number of chemical reactions, Coenzyme-A is required by metabolic processes that facilitate more than one hundred chemical reactions. Coenzyme-A is manufactured in the cells of the liver and other body organs from components transported by the blood. The highest concentrations of Coenzyme-A are found in the liver, heart, kidneys, brain, adrenal glands, and skeletal muscles. However, literally every organ of the body has Coenzyme-A in its tissues because every part of the body has a use for it.

What is Coenzyme-A made of?

Coenzyme-A is manufactured in the cells of the body from three components: adenosine triphosphate (ATP), cysteine, and pantothenic acid (vitamin B-5). The body can manufacture both ATP and cysteine by synthesis; however, pantothenic acid is an essential vitamin that the body does not produce.

What does Coenzyme-A do?

Since its discovery in 1947, Coenzyme-A’s crucial importance to a host of metabolic processes has been recognized and intensively studied. First and foremost, Coenzyme-A initiates the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle). As the TCA cycle’s initiator, Coenzyme-A is indispensable to the body’s primary method of producing more than 90% of the energy that powers the body’s life processes.

Second, but hardly less important, Coenzyme-A initiates the manufacture of a wide variety of specific substances that the body requires. These substances include the neuromuscular messenger and neurotransmitter acetylcholine produced in the brain, the steroid hormones produced in the adrenal glands: aldosterone, hydrocortisone, and the sex hormones (the male androgens, and the female estrogen and progesterone). These sex hormones are also produced in the male testes and female ovaries. Acetylcholine is important to certain operations of the brain: as a neuromuscular messenger it enables nerves to communicate with muscle cells; as a neurotransmitter it carries messages between nerves to parts of the brain affecting primitive emotions, responsiveness to outside stimuli, memory, learning and long-term planning. Aldosterone regulates sodium, potassium and water balance in the body. Hydrocortisone (cortisol) primarily helps control the sugar levels in the blood and liver; however, it also interacts with other organs, glands, the central nervous system, and plays an important role in the body’s reaction to stress. The androgens (such as testosterone or androsterone), estrogen and progesterone support the development and operation of the sex organs essential to human existence.

Another crucial function of Coenzyme-A is its performance as the “universal acetate carrier”; it is the primary biological substance (cofactor) used in acyl transfers. Coenzyme-A initiates the fatty acid metabolism that breaks down and degrades the long molecular chains of fatty acids by adding or removing acyl groups. It also supports pyruvate oxidation and other acetylation reactions. Effective fatty acid metabolism is essential to the avoidance of the high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, and the high lipid levels that are characteristic of patients with cardiovascular or diabetic disorders. Also, Coenzyme-A supports the immune system’s detoxification of many dangerous substances, activation of the white blood cells (that kill and remove invaders), and the formation of the hemoglobin required to produce red blood cells. Additionally, it supports the immune system’s repair of RNA and DNA, and ability to heal physical injury. Further, Coenzyme-A facilitates the manufacture of some very important components of connective tissue. Two of these components, chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid (which is made in part from glucosamine), are necessary to the formation and repair of carti

How important is Coenzyme-A?

Everyone knows that human life depends upon the availability of oxygen; few people know that Coenzyme-A is just as important!

Coenzyme-A:

  • Initiates hundreds of important processes in the body.
  • Reduces the damaging effects of stress and slows the deadly processes of aging.
  • Initiates the TCA cycle that produces more than 90% of the energy the body requires to sustain life.
  • Initiates the chemical reactions required by the human body to utilize Coenzyme Q10, Coenzyme 1 (NADH/Enada) and many of the other nutrients the body needs to stay healthy.
  • Initiates the manufacture of the specific substances that facilitate critical functions of the brain and adrenal glands.
  • Supports the development and functions of the male and female sex organs that are essential to human existence.
  • Acts as the “universal acetate carrier”; it is the primary biological cofactor used in acyl group transfers. It initiates the metabolism of fatty acids, and supports pyruvate oxidation and other acetylation reactions.
  • Supports critical functions of the immune system and facilitates the repair of RNA, DNA and physical injury.
  • Facilitates the manufacture of connective tissue and the formation and repair of cartilage.
  • Enhances physical performance and reduces the build up of lactate.

What is the source of Coenzyme-A?

There are no food sources for Coenzyme-A as a chemical compound. The cells of the body manufacture Coenzyme-A from ATP, cysteine, and pantothenic acid. All three of these Coenzyme-A components must be provided by way of the foods or synthetic dietary supplements digested by the body. At this time, Coenzyme-A is not commercially available in the form of a one compound synthetic dietary supplement. Further, it is doubtful that a compound of Coenzyme-A would be an effective dietary supplement because the digestive process would break such a compound back down into its components before it entered the bloodstream. Coenzyme-A is not manufactured during the digestive process, it is manufactured in the cells of the body! This is why each of the nutraceutical formulas offered by Coenzyme-A Technologies Inc.TM is based upon a balanced combination of components that are used by the cells of the body to manufacture and utilize Coenzyme-A.

Can I take Pantothenic Acid and get the same results as your products?

No, you will not receive the same results and health benefits as you would from taking our products, even if you take 10-20 grams of pantothenic acid every day.

Some of our scientific research is based upon clinical studies in which research subjects were treated with 10-20 grams a day of pantothenic acid to assist their bodies in the production of Coenzyme-A. However, it is not pantothenic acid or pantethine alone that produces Coenzyme-A in the human body. It is essential to understand that while pantothenic acid circulates in the blood in its pure vitamin form, it is stored in the cells of the body only as a component of Coenzyme-A. It is Coenzyme-A that initiates the chemical reactions within the cells of the body that involve pantothenic acid.

Your body needs to have a balanced combination of components that are used by the cells to manufacture and utilize Coenzyme-A, this is what our products contain.

The most reliable and cost effective method of providing the body with the resources necessary to obtain an optimum daily supply of Coenzyme-A is to use Coenzyme-A Technologies’ proprietary nutraceutical product Coenzyme ATM. In the manufacture of its products Coenzyme-A Technologies combines the latest technology with the highest quality ingredients. These nutraceutical products are the first to provide people with a balanced combination of highly active nutritional components that are used by the cells of the body to support its manufacture and utilization of Coenzyme-A. In addition, certain products also contain their own set of specific substances that support Coenzyme-A’s correction or alleviation of particular problems associated with certain nutritional deficiencies.

Even if a person goes to the expense and difficulty of taking 10 or more grams of pantothenic acid a day, they will not know if their body is obtaining an appropriately balanced combination of the other components required by the cells of their body to manufacture Coenzyme-A. Coenzyme-A Technologies’Coenzyme ATM offers a reliable daily dose of Coenzyme-A at a much lower cost. It’s obvious that Coenzyme-A Technologies’ products are the best choice!
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Are Coenzyme-A Technologies’ products water soluble?

Yes.

Can vegans take Coenzyme ATM?

Yes. However, Coenzyme ATM is encased with a two piece gelatin capsule. That is the only ingredient made from animal material. You can take our products without the capsule by opening the capsule and putting its contents in a glass of water, then drink this liquid.

What is special about Coenzyme-A Technologies’ products?

Coenzyme-A Technologies Inc. is the world’s first developer of effective Coenzyme-A and Acetyl Coenzyme-A products. In the manufacture of its products Coenzyme-A Technologies combines the latest technology with the highest quality ingredients. These nutraceutical products are the first to provide people with a balanced combination of highly active nutritional components that are used by the cells of the body to support its manufacture and utilization of Coenzyme-A. In addition, certain products also contain their own set of specific substances that support Coenzyme-A’s correction or alleviation of particular problems associated with certain nutritional deficiencies. One of the reasons why Coenzyme-A Technologies’ products are so effective is because we use a scientifically formulated balanced combination of top quality, highly active natural components in the manufacture of our products.

Coenzyme ATM and the complete ImageTM line of nutraceutical products can be found at your better health food stores.

What are the symptoms of a deficiency of Coenzyme-A?

Signs and symptoms of a Coenzyme-A deficiency included: depression, anxiety, loss of appetite, impaired sense of balance, easy irritability, fatigue, frequent respiratory infection, cardiac instability, and abnormal need for sleep. Neurological disorders included: numbness, muscle weakness, cramps, abdominal pain and paresthesia (abnormal sensations such as itching and prickling, tingling extremities, and “burning feet” syndrome). Biochemical changes included: increased insulin sensitivity, lowered blood cholesterol, decreased serum potassium, and failure of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) to induce eosinopenia.

Based upon the genetically determined life span of humans, a normal person has the potential for living a healthy life for over 100 years. As life proceeds, the actual rate at which aging progresses depends upon: (1) the ratio of damage to repair of the body’s tissues, cells and molecules, and (2) the progressive loss of body functions. Aging accelerates as time passes. There is evidence that sensory mechanisms (time clocks) in the testes, ovaries, pituitary, and hypothalamus measure accumulated damage and begin to decrease their effective function when such damage reaches a critical level.

Damage to DNA and deterioration of the immune system are both recognized as major causes of aging or premature death. The diseases of age that usually cause disability or death such as arthritis, multiple sclerosis, parkinson’s, alzheimer’s, adult on-set diabetes, cancer, artherosclerosis, etc. are usually prevented or alleviated by a well-functioning immune system and healthy DNA. As noted above, Coenzyme-A supports critical functions of the immune system and facilitates the repair of RNA and DNA.

The body has the capacity to manufacture certain nutrients, but not essential vitamins such as pantothenic acid (B-5). However, in addition to taking essential vitamins as a supplement, it is also advantageous to take certain nutrients as dietary supplements. Otherwise, the body must expend raw materials and scarce resources such as enzymes and coenzymes to manufacture the necessary nutrients. Further, as the body ages, its ability to efficiently manufacture and utilize the quantity of nutrients required to maintain good health progressively decreases.

Aside from defective genes, or bacterial and viral diseases, the inability of the body to slow or partially reverse the deadly processes of aging can stem from nutritional deficiencies. Unfortunately, it is sometimes difficult to detect a dietary deficiency; however, the effect of most dietary deficiencies is cumulative and the effect of some may be irreversible (and perhaps fatal). Consider the importance of Coenzyme-A, “The Master Coenzyme”! Why risk a dietary deficiency of Coenzyme-A that could affect the quality or duration of life?

How does the body obtain sufficient Coenzyme-A?

Pantothenic acid is an essential vitamin that the body can not produce, it circulates in the blood in its pure vitamin form and it is stored in the cells of the body only as a component of Coenzyme-A. It is Coenzyme-A that initiates the chemical reactions within the cells of the body that involve pantothenic acid. Pantothenic acid is the primary cofactor of Coenzyme-A; however, it will pass out of the body without manufacturing Coenzyme-A unless sufficient adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and cysteine are both available. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and cysteine can be manufactured within the body by synthesis. However, this requires the expenditure of raw materials and scarce resources such as enzymes and coenzymes. Further, the body’s ability to efficiently produce such substances declines with age.

The most reliable and cost effective method of providing the body with the resources necessary to obtain an optimum daily supply of Coenzyme-A is to use Coenzyme-A Technologies’ proprietary nutraceutical product Coenzyme ATM. In the manufacture of its products Coenzyme-A Technologies combines the latest technology with the highest quality ingredients. These nutraceutical products are the first to provide people with a balanced combination of highly active nutritional components that are used by the cells of the body to support its manufacture and utilization of Coenzyme-A. In addition, certain products also contain their own set of specific substances that support Coenzyme-A’s correction or alleviation of particular problems associated with certain nutritional deficiencies. One of the reasons why Coenzyme-A Technologies’ products are so effective is because we use a scientifically formulated balanced combination of top quality, highly active natural components in the manufacture of our products.

Even if a person goes to the expense and difficulty of taking 10 or more grams of pantothenic acid a day, they will not know if their body is obtaining an appropriately balanced combination of the other components required by the cells of their body to manufacture Coenzyme-A. Coenzyme-A Technologies’Coenzyme ATM offers a reliable daily dose of Coenzyme-A at a much lower cost. It’s obvious that Coenzyme-A Technologies’ products are the best choice!

http://www.coenzyme-a.com/coenzymea_cfs.html

 Coenzyme-A and its role in helping people who suffer from

Obesity, CFS, MD, Malnutrition and Toxic Poisoning

 The problems that many people have with metabolizing fat are often the result of poor nutrition, which is usually compounded by poisoning from environmental toxins of the thiols found in our fat-metabolizing cofactors and enzymes. Coenzyme-A, Acyl Carrier Protein, and Lipoate Acetyl Transferase are among the more obvious targets for toxic metals and fat-soluble environmental toxins such as alkyl halides (from chlorinated drinking water) and lipid epoxides. Coenzyme-A is needed, to metabolize the three major forms of energy (fat, carbohydrates, and protein). If fat is the energy source that can’t be metabolized due to a shortage or blockage of Coenzyme-A then the fat simply accumulates. An increase in Coenzyme-A and a reduction in environmental toxins are essential in correcting this health problem. Consequently, weight gain is not something that anyone should feel guilty about, since in many cases it is often just a result of how extensively we have been malnourished and poisoned.

There are a variety of environmental toxins, including the following:

  • Plant Toxins (phorbol esters and related compounds capable of producing epoxides or enol tautomers).
  • Rancid Fat (polyunsaturated fats poorly stored or contaminated with peroxidizing metal catalysts).
  • Toxic Metals (Nickel and Lead being the more common and insidious in our environment).
  • Mycotoxins (toxins such as aflatoxin from microbes contaminating our food and environment).
  • Toxic herbicides, pesticides and fertilizers.
  • Chemotherapies, many of which are alkylating agents and/or carcinogenic.
  • Chemical Warfare Agents (nearly all, including tear gas such as Mace and HN1).

The body’s primary sources of energy are produced at the cellular level by metabolic processes. Coenzyme-A, Acetyl Coenzyme-A, Coenzyme Q10 and Coenzyme 1 (NADH), together with certain B-vitamins and their coenzyme forms are necessary for such energy production during: (1) the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) and (2) the glycolitic cycle. The TCA cycle is responsible for the production of about 90% of the energy the body requires to sustain life.

Coenzyme-A is required to initiate the TCA cycle and the chemical reactions that involve the utilization of Coenzyme Q10 and Coenzyme 1 for the production of energy at the cellular level.

ANALOGY: Coenzyme 1 (NADH/Enada) is the “spark plug” to the TCA cycle of energy production. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) would be considered the “oxygenation” of that process, while Coenzyme-A is the “ignition switch” to the whole process of energy production.

When Coenzyme-A is lacking or blocked, the human body cannot generate energy from the usual sources and may suffer from conditions known by such medical terms as “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS). This, in turn, leads to less activity and eventually more weight gain.

Since Coenzyme Q10 and Coenzyme 1 (NADH) cannot be utilized by the human body if Coenzyme-A is lacking or blocked due to nutritional deficiencies or environmental poisoning, one could argue that Coenzyme-A is ultimately more important than Coenzyme Q10 and Coenzyme 1.

In addition, intermediates that accumulate (when Coenzyme-A is blocked or lacking) poison other systems and lead to manifestations of other diseases. For example, the body makes Coenzyme-A from pantothenic acid, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and cysteine, the latter being produced through the metabolic intermediate, homocysteine. Homocysteine accumulates in cancer and heart disease. Half of the heart disease incidence has been attributed to a deficiency of the vitamins (folic acid and B6) that help to convert other amino acids into cysteine. A B6 deficiency alone can prevent homocysteine’s conversion into cysteine. Without cysteine, Coenzyme-A cannot be made. This problem is exacerbated further by any pathological accumulation of homocysteine that, through its “like” but not quite “cysteine” chemistry, may interfere with the utilization of cysteine in producing Coenzyme-A. Thus, we have a ready explanation for “chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome” (CFIDS).

Malnourished and/or poisoned individuals cannot convert dietary lipids from animals and plants into human fat compositions. In essence, we are trying to build and maintain the lipid-containing myelin sheaths that surround and protect our nerve fibers with, say, cow “parts”. This probably contributes to pathological situations in which there is an established autoimmune component, such as in multiple sclerosis. An environmental poisoning of the immune system while “cow parts” (antigens) are being used in human structures clearly can contribute to autoimmunity. In other words, a confused and poorly targeted immune system, especially when one’s lipid membranes are in disrepair or of an improper composition, may be the underlying cause of some autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases. Again, obesity could be a result of dangerous metabolic imbalances (brought on by malnutrition and environmental poisonings) that can lead to rheumatoid conditions, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and other autoimmune, immunodeficiency, and infectious diseases.

Having a lot of accumulated fat deposits to process to find or create the right “parts” for nerve maintenance, certainly does not help the body to cope with these diseases, so weight control should help obese individuals with any signs of these diseases. At the same time, too little fat in the diet, such as that provided by reduced-fat and fat-free foods, may be similarly problematic in neurodegenerative diseases. When they take the fat out of our food, what happens to the essential fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and fat-soluble antioxidants? They’re either gone or, hopefully, at least some of them are put back into capsules to sell to us separately. Without supplementation on a fat-free diet, it is not a matter of the “right parts” being available for nerve maintenance; there are no “parts”.

Muscular dystrophy (MD) has a tentative link to obesity since it has been associated with deficiencies of vitamin E and of selenium, both of which are implicated metabolically in protecting lipids and therefore thiol compounds from undesirable oxidations and chemical modifications. Since vitamin E is fat-soluble, dietary intakes may be inadequate to prevent the detrimental effects of lipid epoxidation, especially in those obese individuals on fat-free or starvation diets. Dietary supplements including a good antioxidant mix are indicated under these circumstances. Hence, moderation and nutritional supplementation are essential for any safe weight “control” program; we must supplement with vitamins, enzymes, minerals and other nutrients, eat well (focus on “quality” not quantity), exercise, and avoid environmental toxins to lose weight safely.

Any steps taken to improve nutrition, avoid toxins, and exercise or at least work up a sweat (sweating is one way our body gets rid of nickel, lead and other toxic metals) should help to fortify your defenses against both, environmental and infectious assaults. Also, it is important to make sure that your body has a constant supply of the nutrients it requires to produce Coenzyme-A because Coenzyme-A is expended by the metabolic processes of the body and constantly needs replenishing. At this time, Coenzyme-A is not commercially available in the form of a one compound synthetic dietary supplement. Further, it is doubtful that a compound of Coenzyme-A would be an effective dietary supplement because the digestive process would break such a compound back down into its components before it entered the bloodstream. Coenzyme-A is not manufactured during the digestive process, it is manufactured in the cells of the body! This is why the products offered by Coenzyme-A Technologies are based upon a balanced combination of components that are used by the cells of the body to manufacture and utilize Coenzyme-A.

In summary, good nutrition, Coenzyme-A, vitamin, and mineral supplementation, exercise, and environmental awareness are your best prescription for restoring proper immune responses, for minimizing health costs, and for providing the best “health insurance” for long life.

References:

  1. Knight, G. D., Ph.D.; A Waist is a terrible thing to mind; Medical Hypothesis 1998.
  2. Leung, L. H., M.D.; Pantothenic Acid as a Weight Reducing Agent: Fasting Without Hunger, Weakness and Ketosis; Medical Hypothesis 1995; 44, 403, 405.
  3. Abiko Y.; Metabolism of Coenzyme-A; New York Academic Press, Third Edition 1975; 7:1-25.
  4. Robishaw, J. D. & Neely, J. R.; Coenzyme A Metabolism; American Journal of Physiology 1985; 248: El- E9.
  • Krebs, H. A.; The Regulation of Release of Ketone Bodies by the Liver; Advanced Enzyme Reaction 1966; 4: 339-354.

  1. Coenzyme A and its role in Maintaining Cardiovascular Health

by Nickolaos D. Skouras

http://www.coenzyme-a.com/cardiovasular.html

Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Clogged arteries (atherosclerosis) can set the stage for life threatening heart attacks. What causes clogged arteries? Researchers believe that when LDL cholesterol in the bloodstream is oxidized by free radical attack, it tends to build up as plaque on the walls of blood vessels, impacting the free flow of blood. To further complicate matters, “sticky” blood platelets can clot inside damaged arteries, further cutting off blood flow supply to the heart.

Published research shows that a deficiency of metabolic enzymes exists globally specifically the “Master Coenzyme, Coenzyme-A”. Coenzyme-A is the most active metabolic enzyme in the human body. It operates in the body’s cells and blood where it initiates over 100 crucial biological functions in the body. Coenzyme-A acts as the “universal catalyst”; it is the primary biological cofactor used in acyl group transfers. Coenzyme-A initiates the fatty acid metabolism that breaks down and degrades the long molecular chains of fatty acids by adding or removing acyl groups. This process has significant lipid (fat) lowering activity that inhibits the synthesis of fatty acids into cholesterol and triglycerides and it also accelerates the utilization of fatty acids as an energy source.

Further studies show that the problems most people have with metabolizing fat are often the result of poor nutrition, which is usually compounded by poisoning from environmental toxins. Coenzyme-A is among the more vulnerable targets for toxic metals prescription drugs and fat-soluble environmental toxins. Individuals who have a shortage or blockage of Coenzyme-A cannot convert dietary lipids (fats) from animals and plants into human fat compositions that can be metabolized and converted to essential fatty acids. If fat cannot be metabolized due to a shortage or blockage of Coenzyme-A then the fat simply accumulates. Having accumulated fat deposits that cannot be metabolized and converted into energy leads to cardiovascular disease, stress, low energy, depression, anxiety, chronic fatigue, obesity and manifestations of other disease conditions.

Coenzyme-A is also required to initiate the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and metabolize fat, carbohydrates, and protein and convert them into cellular energy. The TCA cycle produces more than 90% of the energy the body requires to sustain life. Coenzyme-A is constantly being expended by the over demand of metabolic processes of the human body and constantly needs replenishing. The Most Recent Published Research shows that:

According to Phyllis A. Balch, CNC and James F. Balch, MD. in the ( THIRD EDITION ) of the best selling nutritional guide to natural health “Prescription for NUTRITIONAL HEALING.” Coenzyme -A, by Coenzyme -A Technologies, Inc. Reduces free radical damage to LDL cholesterol and decreases human platelet aggregation by supporting the immune systems detoxification of many dangerous substances. It provides an all -natural way to maintain the healthy, normal functioning of the heart and the whole cardiovascular system.

In summary, proper nutrition and a healthy diet, combined with Coenzyme-A, a natural vitamin and mineral supplement, clean fresh air and exercise, may be the best prescription for improving the way your body looks and feels and for providing superior “health insurance” for long life.

http://www.coenzyme-a.com/resveratrol_article.html

Resveratrol A Novel Method to Simulate the Genetic Effects of Caloric Restriction

By Tiesha D. Johnson, RN, BSN

Scientists have discovered a plant extract related to resveratrol that mimics many of the beneficial effects of *caloric restriction.* This natural compound favorably regulates genes involved in the development of cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and the system-wide inflammation that underlies a variety of age-related disorders.

Pterostilbene (terro-STILL-bean), found in blueberries, grapes, and in the bark of the Indian Kino Tree, has been used for centuries in Ayurvedic medicine. Pterostilbene and resveratrol are both stilbene compounds, closely related structurally, which gives them similar but not identical functions. Researchers have found that these two compounds work in a synergistic fashion to activate one?s ?longevity genes.?

Pterostilbene produces its beneficial effects on gene expression in ways that enhance those produced by resveratrol. That is why pterostilbene functions particularly well when combined with resveratrol.

This article first examines the unique ways in which pterostilbene simulates conditions produced by caloric restriction. Then it will describe how these effects translate into a broader spectrum of benefits than otherwise provided by resveratrol alone.

Pterostilbene and Gene Expression: The Key to Longer Life

You’re probably used to thinking of genes as fixed units of hereditary information that determine physical characteristics like hair and eye color.

Calorie restriction turns on genes directly related to long term survival. This includes genes that reduce the activity of certain cancer-promoting agents, genes that induce programmed death of cancer cells, and genes that confer neuroprotection.1

The incredible news is that many of the same genes that confer a longer life span can be favorably modulated with plant extracts such as resveratrol and pterostilbene.

How Pterostilbene and Resveratrol Work Together.

Scientists have found that resveratrol activates genes near the beginning of the molecular cascade precipitated by caloric restriction. These in turn activate a broad array of disease-preventing genes. In essence,resveratrol’s beneficial genetic action takes place “upstream.”

Pterostilbene directly activates genes “downstream” from the sites of resveratrol?s action. This complements resveratrol’s ability to help prevent cancer and diabetes, and support healthy blood lipids. Acting together, resveratrol and pterostilbene produce potent longevity-promoting effects across the cycle of gene expression through complementary mechanisms.

How Pterostilbene Mimics Caloric Restriction

It’s truly remarkable how closely pterostilbene can mimic the beneficial effects of calorie restriction on a molecular level. Calorie restriction directly suppresses cancer-causing genes while up-regulating genes that suppress cancer development.1-21 In numerous studies pterostilbene modulates exactly the same genes, up-regulating those that stimulate the programmed cell death known as apoptosis, and down-regulating those that allow cancer cells to invade and metastasize.22-31

Calorie restriction changes expression of genes throughout the metabolic process. It increases activity of powerful fat-sensing complexes that lower blood lipids and sugar levels.32-35 Pterostilbene naturally activates these same fat-sensing complexes and was found to favorably affect lipid profiles in hamsters with elevated cholesterol.36,37

In the liver, calorie restriction favorably modifies several vital glucose-regulating enzymes, which helps to control blood sugar.38 Pterostilbene produces identical beneficial changes in many of those enzymes. It also reduces markers of dangerous glucose-damaged proteins (glycosylated hemoglobin).39

Calorie restriction dramatically reduces production of inflammatory mediators linked to age-related conditions such as atherosclerosis, chronic inflammatory diseases, and even cognitive decline.8,40-51 At the level of gene expression, pterostilbene exerts virtually identical effects, suppressing those same genes in studies of inflammation-related conditions.23,31,52-54 And like calorie restriction, *pterostilbene* up-regulates specific brain proteins associated with improved memory.55,56

In the liver, calorie restriction favorably modifies several vital glucose-regulating enzymes, which helps to control blood sugar.38 Pterostilbene produces identical beneficial changes in many of those enzymes. It also reduces markers of dangerous glucose-damaged proteins (glycosylated hemoglobin).39

Calorie restriction dramatically reduces production of inflammatory mediators linked to age-related conditions such as atherosclerosis, chronic inflammatory diseases, and even cognitive decline.8,40-51 At the level of gene expression, pterostilbene exerts virtually identical effects, suppressing those same genes in studies of inflammation-related conditions.23,31,52-54 And like calorie restriction, pterostilbene up-regulates specific brain proteins associated with improved memory.55,56

Cancer Chemoprevention

There?s growing evidence that pterostilbene provides chemoprevention by many routes. Pterostilbene has powerful antioxidant capacity equivalent to resveratrol, and its anti-inflammatory actions help it block the inflammation/cancer connection.57 In addition, pterostilbene inhibited the growth of highly malignant human melanoma cells and prevented metastatic spread of those cells to the liver in laboratory animals. It thus enhanced survival.27

As with so many nutraceuticals, pterostilbene achieved this dramatic effect by multiple mechanisms. It inhibits production of molecules that cancer cells use to “stick” to vessel walls, and also makes them vulnerable to immune-system destruction.

Other mechanisms include: blocking enzymes that activate carcinogens;58,59 up-regulating pro-apoptotic activity in highly resistant leukemia cells (while showing no toxicity at all to normal blood-forming cells);29 blocking metastatic spread of aggressive and invasive human breast cancer cells;25 and enhancing nitric oxide-induced cell death in human melanoma.28

At the whole-organism level, pterostilbene suppresses formation of pre-cancerous cells in the colons of carcinogen-exposed animals.60 More excitingly, pterostilbene and quercetin dramatically enhanced elimination by radiation and chemotherapy treatment of implanted colon cancers.54 Cancer cells communicate with each other across special connectors called gap junctions.Pterostilbene disrupts those gap junctions, thereby interfering with inter-cellular communication that cancers need to direct their renegade growth.60-61 Disruption of gap junctions is a mechanism that appears to be truly unique to pterostilbene, one not shared by other chemopreventive or chemotherapy agents. Clearly there?s substance to the recent conclusion by Korean cancer researchers that “pterostilbene may be a functional chemopreventative agent and that dietary exposure of pterostilbene would be helpful for improving health.” 24

Cognition and Memory

Both resveratrol and pterostilbene have remarkable effects on learning and memory. Pterostilbene was the most efficacious of a group of resveratrol-like compounds at preventing loss of the neurotransmitter dopamine from memory centers in aged rats.62 Supplementation with pterostilbene reversed cognitive behavioral deficits. This study showed working memory function was correlated with levels of pterostilbene in the hippocampus, a key brain location where memory is processed.

A closer look reveals yet again the astonishing correspondence between pterostilbene and caloric restriction on gene expression. Supplementation with blueberries (one of the richest sources of pterostilbene) improved performance of aged animals in working memory after just three weeks.55 The improvement was closely correlated with activation of a brain-signaling protein in the hippocampus. Improvement in memory performance was just recently shown to be another direct result of caloric restriction!56 Improved spatial memory during times of low food availability might be a very appropriate adaptive response, making animals more efficient at locating scarce food resources. If so, thenpterostilbene?s ability to mimic these fundamental changes in brain chemistry is a powerful modern take on an ancient survival mechanism.

Pterostilbene affects gene expression similarly to caloric restriction in multiple ways… all key in the battle against age-related disease. A more in-depth report about pterostilbene?s many health benefits will be included in the February 2010 edition of Life Extension Magazine®.

Summary

In the words of Dr. Agnes M. Rimando, a leading expert in the biology of the stilbenes (resveratrol, pterostilbene, and related compounds):“Stilbenes have diverse pharmacological activities, which include cancer prevention, a cholesterol-lowering effect, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and increased life span.”63

What is so exciting to modern researchers is the way in which both resveratrol and pterostilbene achieve these benefits by mimicking the actions of caloric restriction, which produces similar effects on gene expression.

Even more exciting is the series of discoveries showing that resveratrol and pterostilbene produce similar results by acting at different locations in the control of gene expression. This means that these two phytonutrients likely complement one another in increasing both the quantity and the quality of life. Along with responsible calorie control and exercise, both belong in the regimens of people who are serious about improving health and longevity.

To find out how much *pterostilbene* you may need, please read below.

How Much Pterostilbene Do You Need?

Pterostilbene is found in minute quantities in certain plant foods. A typical cup of blueberries, for example, contains only about 20 mcg of pterostilbene.

Even in these tiny amounts, pterostilbeneis believed to provide some of the benefits related to ingesting these healthy foods.

Like resveratrol, in order to significantly impact one’s health, it is desirable to consume more pterostilbene than what one would normally obtain from dietary sources.

A dose of 125-500 micrograms of pterostilbene provides an amount of this nutrient comparable to consuming from five to twenty cups of blueberries every day!

Research is underway to determine the optimal dose of pterostilbene for health benefits. Gene expression studies in animal models with pterostilbene show favorable effects upon similar genes up-regulated by calorie restriction. Similar to resveratrol, a close chemical ‘cousin’ of pterostilbene, higher concentrations of pterostilbene may be necessary for optimal effects in gene expression studies.1 A dose of 3 mg a day ofpterostilbene provides the equivalent of eating over 140 cups of blueberries each day. These super-high potency pterostilbene formulas are expected to soon become available as dietary supplements.

The good news is that pterostilbene provides so much biological activity in a relatively small dose, that it is being added to resveratrol and other supplement formulas today without significantly affecting the cost to the consumer.

Reference: 1. BMC Med Genemics 2008 MAR 20;1:7.

If you have any questions on the scientific content of this article, please call a Life Extension Health Advisor at 1-800-226-2370.

 http://www.coenzyme-a.com/Overweight_and_Obesity%20_article.html

 Overweight and Obesity –  A Revolutionary Approach to Managing the Metabolic Syndrome

by Nickolaos D. Skouras, PhD.

Introduction

The Metabolic Syndrome, or “Syndrome-X”, as it is often called is the combination of Obesity, Hypercholestroelimia, and Hypertension, they are all linked together by an underlying resistance to Insulin. This condition is often associated with excess insulin secretion.

This syndrome was first described by Reaven in 1998. Unfortunately its principal component of obesity was not initially emphasized. So common and so pernicious are the negative health outcomes of the Metabolic Syndrome that it qualifies as the number one public problem that is facing several western societies.

Recently the House of Commons Committee has officially reported that obesity has reached serious levels amongst the population in the U.K. Statistically one in every five men and one in every four women are suffering from a clinical form of obesity.

This staggering statistic is alarming not only for the abundant health risks faced by an overweight individual, but also for the enormous and often hidden costs of treating ailments and diseases caused or exacerbated by obesity. Additionally, new research indicates that a restricted caloric intake can lead to a longer life. But a calorie-rich diet isn’t always the single cause of obesity, and the hunger pains associated with diets that severely limit the quantity of food eaten rarely make these plans successful.

One of the most underrated problems many overweight people face is the blow the excess weight is to their self-esteem. The overwhelming message our society reiterates to the overweight person is that he simply “lacks willpower,” and if he would just “buckle down” he could face the challenge. But many chronically overweight adults have addressed the issue (often many times in their life) through a change of diet, exercising, or following one of the thousands of quick-fix diets and eating plans available to the average British consumer. Sometimes the struggle is too great and the success is limited to a few weeks. Or the individual loses all his weight, only to regain it (and maybe more) back later. The feeling of failure and shame this causes is traumatic, and people resign themselves to just being fat.

Many people find themselves temporarily overweight for a variety of reasons.Perhaps a new job leaves someone more sedentary than a previous position, a woman who has just given birth has put on extra weight during pregnancy, or an individual finds himself responsible for the first time in his life to cook his own food and he doesn’t have the skills necessary to create healthy, balanced meals. These examples and many other temporary conditions are often overcome with proper training, a resumption in regular routines or a boost in activity level. However, many new clinical studies indicate that there are many overweight people who have a chronic disease called obesity. For these people, willpower and exercise alone are not enough. Their problem needs to be treated like any other medical problem – a bodily imbalance that can be corrected in order to assist the individual to maximize the potential for weight loss.

If the overweight individual approaches obesity as a medical condition, the shame and helplessness associated with endless dieting successes and failures can be eliminated.

A sensible program can be developed with a primary care provider that includes healthy food choices, moderate exercise and supplementation to address the body’s chemical imbalance. Living free of excess weight is enough to make a person feel great.But the long-term benefits of weight loss greatly reduce the risk of serious medical conditions including Insulin Resistance, Diabetes, Cardiovascular disease and certain forms of Cancer. And that makes a successful approach to weight loss even more important.

What can be done to treat obesity?

Many dietary programs, books, groups and drugs are available for those seeking to lose weight in the United Kingdom. These range from sensible, healthy plans developed with a primary care provider, to fad diets and “fat blocking” pills promoted in the latest tabloid magazine. Other supplements labeled as Thermogenics are sold as metabolic enhancers, aside from just increasing the internal body heat, they are primarily composed of herbal stimulants. This can only exacerbate the Obesity problem by possibly causing Heart failure or Stroke.Â

Until now the only scientific answer to the problem is a combined program of reduced caloric intake increased daily activity including exercise and a change in long-term life style conditioning.

Since during the Evolutionary Origin of the Human Cellular Metabolism the “Citric Acid Cycle was and still is the Core of Biology.“ Considerable attention has been paid to the development of specific molecules such as Coenzyme A that are able to reduce Insulin resistance.

Dr. Chris Newgard and colleagues from Duke University Medical Center published the latest research paper “Nature Medicine” on March 9th, 2004. Using Obese and Insulin resistant rats in their studies.The researchers conclusively demonstrated that significant health benefits could be achieved by the supplementation of the natural food sources of Coenzyme A (whole animal, muscle meats, hearts, and livers).

These benefits would not only be for prevention purposes but also for the treatment and reversal of some very serious disease conditions such as are being discussed in this paper.

This is accomplished by increasing the endogenous concentrations of Coenzyme-A and Acetyl Coenzyme A, into ones body. Which intern results in the “Over-expression”, that acts as caloric partitioning mechanism thus directing fatty acids to be metabolically broken down, and recycled in the human cell for energy production and finally oxidized out of the body.

New Developments

Coenzyme-A Technologies, Inc., has applied its innovative proprietary Coenzyme A Modulator Matrix ITM to the creation of a nutraceutical product that contains a balanced combination of active nutritional components that support the body’s natural management of fat. Coenzyme-A in conjunction with proper diet and exercise, can produce phenomenal results in fat loss, reversing Insulin Resistance and high blood Cholesterol, while maintaining energy levels and preventing hunger and weakness.

Who is Coenzyme-A Technologies Inc.? Coenzyme-ATM Technologies Inc. is the world’s first developer of effective Coenzyme-A and Acetyl Coenzyme-A products. Coenzyme-A Technologies, Inc. has applied new technology to the formulation and manufacture of a series of proprietary products which address nutritional deficiencies that result from the stress of modern day living, chemical imbalances within the body, and the effects of aging.

Coenzyme-A is the first nutraceutical product to combine nutritional components that can be used by the body to support its manufacture and utilization of Coenzyme-A (The Master Coenzyme) with a specific set of substrates that are designed to assist the body in metabolizing fat.

The benefits of Coenzyme-ATM

  • The Pyruvate component, working to primarily enhance the transport of glucose into the muscle cells from the blood. Scientific studies show it increases (glucose extraction) from 150% to 300%.
  • Cardiovascular benefits such as providing an alternative and more beneficial energy source thus improving the performance of a healthy or dysfunctional heart.
  • Acetyl L-Carnitine, the acetyl ester of L-Carnitine (a more biologically active form of Carnitine), is the carrier of fatty acids across mitochondrial membranes.

In the body, Acetyl L-Carnitine modulates cellular concentration of free Coenzyme-A and Acetyl Coenzyme-A compounds, and is integrally involved in numerous cellular functions including energy production by exchanging across sub-cellular membranes. Acetyl L-Carnitine serves as a pool of acetyl groups to regenerate Acetyl Coenzyme-A from free Coenzyme-A.

  • Increases energy production in the body within the processes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) and glycolitic cycles.
  • Metabolizes fat and reduces cholesterol and triglycerides by increasing fat utilization.
  • Stabilizes blood sugar levels, maintaining a healthy balance of insulin.
  • Synthesizes fatty acids needed for healthy hormonal production.
  • Enhances physical performance, and the overall sense of well being.

 http://www.coenzyme-a.com/modern_medical_stress.html

Modern Medical Interpretation of Stress

by Dr. Walt Stoll M.D.

Stored hypothalamic stress-effect is resolvable but MUST be understood by the person.

A survey, taken in 1987, reported that the average person, in this culture, was exposed to more than 1000 times as many stresses/person/day as people were exposed to 100 years ago. This works out to more than 382,000 stressors/person/day. Only 10% of those stressors were psychological, or social, stressors. All the rest are physical, chemical, electromagnetic, etc.; things you hear about in the media every day.

All stressors cause the same response in your system: your body has a “Fight or Flight” reaction whether you have a fight with your spouse or are exposed to a chemical.

In 1990 the American Society of Chemical Engineers celebrated a milestone: they announced that they had just introduced the 500,000th invented chemical into the market place. That means that there are now at least 500,000 chemical stressors in the environment that had not even EXISTED in nature 100 years ago.

It is now estimated that there are more than 200,000 electromagnetic frequencies, in our environment, that are man-made and did not exist in nature 100 years ago. We are just now beginning to appreciate that, though invisible to our eyes, they are not without influence on our molecules. Chemicals PLUS Electromagnetic Smog = worse effect. The combination of each stressor with another magnifies the “stress effect” of EACH stressor.,/p>

The point is: there are too many things causing a “Fight or Flight” stress response for us to discharge that much “Readiness” in the usual 8 hours sleep. Now, each day, we wake up with a little more “Readiness” than we had when we woke up the day before. Over the years that creates a heavier and heavier burden of alertness that influences how we respond to EVERY stressor. Relative insomnia is one of the very early signs of this overload.

If you tripped over a rock, in the middle of a field, you would feel a stress-effect. If you tripped over the same rock, in EXACTLY the same way, at the edge of a cliff, the near-death experience (“Ack! I almost fell over a cliff! ! “) would result in a much greater stress-effect from the SAME stressor (the trip). The same thing is true of EVERY organ system in your body. The closer you are to the edge of your reserves, in that organ system, the more stress-effect you will experience iN THAT ORGAN SYSTEM. Anything that produces more distance, between you and the limits of your reserves, will result in each stressor affecting you less.

Remember, you did NOT fall over the cliff. The stressors (trips) were identical. What you EXPERIENCED was the “stress effect” and that is what is stored in the autonomic system.

Dr. Hans Selye was right about stress and its effects on human physiology–all the way back in the ‘50’s. We are just now starting to learn what he was telling us.

Anyone interested in practically applying this concept to their daily lives needs to read a copy of my book Saving Yourself from the Disease-Care Crisis.

READ HEALTH AT THE CROSSROADS BY DEAN BLACK, PHD, TO FIND OUT WHY THIS IS NOT “COMMON KNOWLEDGE” ALREADY.

The information contained herein is intended for educational purposes only.

 

 

 

The Importance of Coenzyme-A in Perimenopausal and Menopausal Women

by Nickolaos D. Skouras, PhD.

http://www.coenzyme-a.com/menopause_article.html

 Research shows that hormonal changes and chemical imbalances in perimenopausal and menopausal women contributes to higher levels of cholesterol, increased fat storage, acne, stress, anxiety and depression.

Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death in men and women. Their incidence, rapidly growing in the perimenopausal and menopausal period, is related to increased levels of cholesterol and triglycerides.

The body has a natural tendency to store away any excess calorie intake in its fat depot, this natural tendency increases in perimenopausal and menopausal women. Coenzyme-A is the key that unlocks this fat depot and is the agent that converts the stored fat into energy through lipid metabolism, which reduces cholesterol and triglycerides by increasing fat utilization.

The cumulative effects of 30 years or so of reproductive cycles reduces the availability of Coenzyme-A from the body’s total Coenzyme-A pool. Each reproductive cycle depletes some Coenzyme-A from a resource that is very often deficient from the start. Added to this is pregnancy and nutritional deficiencies. Both of these deplete even more Coenzyme-A, allowing the deficiency to become even more severe. This is why many women gain a significant amount of weight after having children and also when they are perimenopausal and menopausal. Their Coenzyme-A pool is dwindling.

Studies also show that Coenzyme-A plays a major role in the body’s ability to cope with stress, anxiety, and depression and strengthen the immune system. In combating stress and anxiety, the body secretes hormones as a means to adapt to stress. These hormones are derivatives of cholesterol and an increased demand for them will draw on the available Coenzyme-A. Lipid (fat) metabolism and energy production may therefore be compromised, rendering the body more prone to depleted energy, weight gain, acne, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and other diseases.

—————————-

 Coenzyme-A and the Skin Health Connection

By Nickolaos D. Skouras Ph.D.

 

http://www.coenzyme-a.com/coa_and_skin_health_article.html

 Aside from the biological functions that coenzyme-A has in regard to addressing the proper detoxification of harmful substances, while correcting and alleviating specific >biochemical imbalances within the body, and enhancing skin regeneration by promoting the synthesis of spingolipids, and squalene, (fatty acids that form the protective moisture barrier.) Proteoglycans, and glucosaminoglycans, (the primary constituents of the top layer of the human epidermis,) while including the (cell’s adhesion and glue-like proteins,) such as fibronectin, vitronectin, and finally the (structural components) collagen’s and elastin. Consider the neurological connection of the skin as not only the biggest and heaviest organ in the human body, it’s also one of the most complex, second only to the central nervous system (the brain, and spinal cord) in terms of it’s complexity. Another very interesting thing is that it derives emryonically from the same cells as the central nervous system. It also has tremendous number of similarities to the nervous system biochemically, for example, certain neurotransmittersand neuromodulatorsactually affect the human skin cells in a manner analogous to the way they affect brain cells. One of the things that current research has showed us, is that skin cells can be damaged by the same sort of processes that cause excitatory neurotoxic damage. An example would be that if someone were to take a dose of strychnine (poison) and then undergoes convulsions, not only would their muscles sustain damage, but also so would their nerve cells. The mechanisms by which this occurs are now well understood and the process can now be prevented. Now that we have this understanding of the skin’s biochemistry, and neurological connection we can come right to the point of the matter.

Coenzyme-A fights stress! We all know that Stress (and especially adrenal exhaustion) is the underlining cause of all of the major disease conditions, especially here in the U.S. But consider how stress effects our human emotions, such as anxiety, anger, and sadness, or depression, and that these excitatory emotions are directly connected and have deleterious effects to your skin’s health. The question now arises, how to prevent theneurotoxic effects that stress has on skin? The obvious answer is our Coenzyme-A product! Amongst the numerous biological, and biochemical functions that Coenzyme-A, has in the human body two of its primary functions that it automatically prioritizes in, are the synthesis of the adrenal hormones, and the acetylation functions of all the key neurotransmitters in the brain. Such neurotransmitters as (serotonin, melatonin, dopamine, and most importantly, acetylcholine.)
Discover the world’s best kept skin anti-aging secret Coenzyme-A!

  • Arthritis – A Chronic Illness that Impacts a Person’s Entire Lifestyle

by Nickolaos D. Skouras, PhD.

 http://www.coenzyme-a.com/arthritis_article.html

In its publication titled “Help Your Arthritis Treatment Work” the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) states that: “There is no cure for arthritis. But correct treatment can ease pain and stiffness.” “If you have arthritis, the doctor may prescribe a medicine for you or tell you to use a medicine you buy without a prescription, like aspirin.

Arthritis means inflammation of the joint; it causes redness, warmth, swelling and pain. The general term arthritis refers to more than 100 different rheumatic diseases. As of June 1997, it was reported that one in every seven Americans had some form of arthritis. The incidence of this disease will continue to increase as baby boomers age. The most common types of arthritis are: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, spinal arthritis, and gout.

How effective are medical treatments for arthritis?

Many forms of arthritis are autoimmune diseases that are debilitating, disfiguring, and sometimes lethal. The immune system of some individuals appears to make a mistake and attempts to destroy certain tissues of the body as if they were the invaders (antigens) it is meant to destroy and remove. Doctors should closely monitor patients that are taking drugs that slow the disease process of autoimmune diseases or suppress the immune system. More than one medication may be prescribed by a doctor for treating arthritis. At this time, there is no known cure for arthritis!

The article titled “Arthritis: Alternative Trearments”, published in Health Line by Brent Hauver states “160,000 Americans died last year from adverse reactions to prescription drugs. 18 million more suffered toxic side effects from drugs prescribed to them and Arthritis medication tops the chart; in fact there are more people who die from reactions to Arthritis medications than any other drug (legal or illegal!)”.

Are there alternative treatments for arthritis?

The FDA does not recognize the effectiveness of any diets, health foods or supplements for treating arthritis. However, there is a significant amount of technical information available which state that there are alternative treatments that may provide relief from damages caused by arthritis. The Internet is a good source for such information.

Certain nutrients which include Chondroitin sulfate, CMO (Cetyl Myristoleate), Glucosamine sulfate and MSM (methylsulfonylmethane) are believed to:

  • Support the maintenance and repair of bone, joints, ligaments, connective tissue, and cartilage.
  • Alleviate the inflammation and pain associated with arthritis.
  • Act as a lubricating oil found in synovial fluids in the joints.
  • Detoxify the body.
  • Act as immune system modulators by suppressing over activity of the immune system.

Who is Coenzyme-A Technologies Inc.?

Coenzyme-A Technologies Inc. is the world’s first developer of effective Coenzyme-A and Acetyl Coenzyme-A products. Coenzyme-A Technologies has applied new technology to the formulation and manufacture of a series of proprietary products which address nutritional deficiencies that result from the stress of modern day living, chemical imbalances within the body, and the effects of aging.

Healthy Joint ImageTM is the first nutraceutical product to combine nutritional components that can be used by the body to support its manufacture and utilization of Coenzyme-A (The Master Coenzyme) with a specific set of substances that are designed to provide relief from the symptoms of arthritis.

The active components of Healthy Joint ImageTM are:

  • Proprietary formula
  • Coenzyme A Modulator Matrix IVTM(1100mg)
  • N-Acetyl D-Glucosamine (NAG)
  • Chondroitin Sulfate
  • Cetyl Myristoleate (CMO)
  • Methylsulfanylmethane (MSM)
  • Pantothenic Acid(450mg)
  • (d-Calcium Pantothenate)
  • Manganese(6.65mg)

Healthy Joint ImageTM is designed to:

  1. Support the critical functions of the immune system and facilitate the repair of RNA, DNA and physical injury.
  2. Support the lubricating oil found in synovial fluids in the joints.
  3. Facilitate the manufacture of connective tissue and the formation and repair of cartilage.
  4. Support the maintenance and repair of the body’s bones, joints, ligaments, connective tissue, and cartilage.
  5. Detoxify the body.
  6. Support the alleviation of the inflammation and pain associated with arthritis.

Healthy Joint ImageTM, Coenzyme ATM and the complete ImageTM line of nutraceutical products can be found at your better health food stores or visit Coenzyme-A Technologies’ web site at http://www.coenzyme-a.com for more information about its products.

N-Acetyl D-Glucosamine (NAG)

Specialized form for intestinal lining support:

  1. Naturally superior form of glucosamine
  2. Protects the intestinal lining
  3. Key component in joint tissue and lubrication

N-Acetyl-Glucosamine (NAG) is the body’s precursor to hyaluronic acid, which is part of the synovial fluid that lubricates joints. NAG is produced in the intestinal tract via specialized cells called goblet cells that are responsible for producing the body’s mucin (or mucosal lining). Glucosamine is produced naturally in the body and it is a key building block for making cartilage. The compounds that combine to form glucosamine are necessary for the construction and maintenance of virtually all connective tissues and lubricating fluids in the body: tendons, ligaments, cartilage, bone matrix, skin, joint fluid, intestinal lining, and mucous membranes. N-acetyl- Glucosamine is the superior form of glucosamine for joint and intestinal tissue.

  • Cholesterol and Triglycerides – A Matter of Life and Death

by Nickolaos D. Skouras, PhD.

http://www.coenzyme-com/cholesterol_article.html

  

Introduction

Cholesterol is a fat (lipid) that is essential to human life. It builds and repairs the cells of the body, supports the production of sex hormones (such as testosterone and estrogen), and helps the body digest food; large concentrations are found in the brain, spinal chord and liver. The amount of cholesterol the body requires comes partly from diet but mostly from the liver and intestines. The health problems associated with cholesterol arise when the intake from food sources exceeds the body’s normal requirements. Blockage of the coronary arteries, by an accumulation of too much cholesterol, causes coronary artery disease; the primary cause of the heart attacks. Annually, as many as 1,500,000 Americans suffer heart attacks; nearly one third (500,00) of these attacks are fatal.

Other lipids, triglycerides, supply the body with fuel for energy. They are stored in adipose (fat) tissue or (combined with cholesterol and proteins) float in the bloodstream in the form of lipoproteins. Triglycerides are normally obtained from foods; however, excessive sugar and alcohol consumption can cause them to be synthesized in the body. The health problems associated with triglycerides arise when the intake of food (containing saturated fats and oils) exceeds the body’s normal requirements. An excessive buildup of the body’s adipose tissue leads to obesity. Excessive levels of triglycerides in the blood increase a person’s risk of heart disease.

Being fats, cholesterol and triglycerides do not dissolve in water; combining with proteins to form lipoproteins facilitates their circulation through the body’s watery blood. The two main types: low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), differ in the ratio of protein to cholesterol and triglycerides they contain. The “bad” LDL is low in protein relative to these lipids; it becomes oxidized and deposits cholesterol in the walls of the arteries. The “good” HDL is high in protein relative to these lipids; it removes cholesterol from artery walls and carries lipids from body cells to the liver for reuse or disposal in bile.

When measured in a person’s blood, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol and the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol are referred to as the “cardiac risk factor ratios.” Research has demonstrated that the measurement of these cardiac risk factors in a person’s blood is a good measure of that person’s risk of developing heart disease.

About 90% of all diabetics are non-insulin dependent. These diabetics have up to 3 times the risk of dying prematurely from a heart attack caused by hardening of the arteries (atheroselerosis) as nondiabetics. Therefore, these diabetics must aggressively reduce the risk factors linked to strokes and heart attacks by attaining as normal a blood glucose level as possible and reducing blood cholesterol to relatively safe levels. In most cases, achieving ideal body weight plays a major role in the restoration of normal blood sugar and cholesterol levels in these diabetics. Diet ( including dietary supplements) is of primary importance and should be faithfully followed before any drug is used.

Are there medications for high levels of cholesterol?

Aside from lipid problems caused by defective genes, a program for the reduction of cholesterol and triglycerides should begin with a change in lifestyle. Proper diet, exercise, weight reduction, and nutrients all can help a person reduce the level of these lipids. However, if the level of cholesterol and triglycerides remains high despite the forgoing lifestyle changes, a person should consult a health care practitioner. There are a number of drugs that can be prescribed to lower total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, while increasing beneficial HDL.

Are there other treatments for high levels of cholesterol?

As stated above, proper diet, exercise, weight reduction, and nutrients can all help reduce the level of cholesterol and triglycerides in a normal person’s body. Research has demonstrated that certain vitamins and minerals can help lower the level of such lipids. It has also been shown that there appears to be a correlation between higher levels of cholesterol and triglycerides and certain vitamin and mineral deficiencies.

Who is Coenzyme-A Technologies Inc.?

Coenzyme-A Technologies Inc. is the world’s first developer of effective Coenzyme-A and Acetyl Coenzyme-A products. Coenzyme-A Technologies has applied new technology to the formulation and manufacture of a series of proprietary products which address nutritional deficiencies that result from the stress of modern day living, chemical imbalances within the body, and the effects of aging.

Healthy Cholesterol ImageTM” is the first nutraceutical product to combine nutritional components that can be used by the body to support its manufacture and utilization of Coenzyme-A (The Master Coenzyme) with a specific set of substances that are designed to support the body’s fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism.

The active components of Healthy Cholesterol ImageTM are:

Healthy Cholesterol ImageTM inhibits the synthesis of fatty acids into cholesterol and triglycerides and accelerates the body’s utilization of fatty acids as an energy source.

The benefits of Healthy Cholesterol ImageTM include:

  • Metabolizes nutrients – including fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.
  • Reduces cholesterol and triglycerides by increasing fat utilization.
  • Increases energy production in the body within the processes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) and glycolitic cycles.
  • Stabilizes blood sugar levels, maintaining a healthy balance of insulin.
  • Synthesizes prphyrin – a heme precursor of importance in hemoglobin synthesis.
  • The acetylation of choline – the major neurotransmitter of the body.
  • Synthesizes antibodies.
  • Detoxifies drugs, including sulphonamides.
  • Synthesizes steroid hormones.

Healthy Cholesterol ImageTMCoenzyme ATM and the complete ImageTM line of nutraceutical products can be found at your better health food stores or visit Coenzyme-A Technologies’ web site at http://www.coenzyme-a.com for more information about its products.

 ——————————

Coleus Forskohlii

by Nickolaos D. Skouras, PhD.

http://www.coenzyme-a.com/coleus_forskohii_article.html

 

 

Introduction

This “power” herb has an active ingredient in it called forskolin. It has been used in ayruvedic medicine for many years. Forskolin’s basic mechanism of action is that it increases the amount of cyclic AMP (adenosine monophosphate) in cells by activating an enzyme called adenylate cyclase. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is one of the most important secondary messengers in the cell. It is considered to be one of the most important cell regulating compounds.

Under normal circumstances, cAMP forms by adenylate cyclase activation due to hormonal stimulation at the cell receptor site. However, forskolin seems to bypass this reaction and allows for an increase in intracellular cAMP to occur. Why is it important to increase cAMP levels? Well, there are several benefits of this to athletes including relaxation of the arteries and smooth muscles, lowering blood pressure, enhanced insulin secretion (which can help drive carbohydrates and protein into muscle cells for energy and recovery), increased thyroid hormone function (which can help enhance metabolic rate), and significantly increase lipolysis (fat burning). Forskolin also seems to benefit other cellular enzymes as well.Research link on coleus forskohlii

The breakdown of fat for fuel (lipolysis) is actually regulated primarily by Acetyl CoenzymeA and secondary cAMP. forskolin has been shown to not only enhance lipolysis but it may also inhibit fat storage from occurring. This is very good news for individuals trying to lose bodyfat and get lean. Another way that forskolin may allow for fat loss to occur is by stimulating thyroid hormone production and release. Thyroid hormone controls metabolism and can enhance metabolic rate, which may translate into more fat loss.

One of the overlooked benefits of forskolin includes its stimulation of digestive enzymes, which can allow individuals to digest and assimilate their food better. It has been shown to increase nutrient absorption in the small intestine.

Forskolin has been shown to be safe and effective and has a great amount of potential as a sports supplement. As with most dietary supplements, more human research is needed but the future looks bright for this compound. The recommended dosage for this supplement is 8-10 mg of active forskolin (standardized from coleus forskohlii) two to three times daily.p

 GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE

Extract from a paper written by Dr. Charles Anderson

Sugar Is Not So Sweet

 http://www.coenzyme-a.com/gymnema_sylvestre_article.html

 Sugar has been a suspect in the aging process since the 1960s, when scientists found that common health problems of people with sugar imbalances: loss of sight, kidney, nerve, heart problems,aching in the limbs and stroke-closely mirror the experience of premature aging. Those with unstable blood sugar age prematurely because sugar destroys everything from the teeth to the limbs. Blood sugar imbalance can put your body on fast-forward, causing you to think, feel. look, and act like a much older person. How does this happen to otherwise healthy individuals? Other than heredity, look no further than your next meal: A lifetime of eating bread, pasta, and sweets causes a buildup of glucose that the body can no longer process efficiently. The result is that overworked insulin-producing cells wear out, and excess glucose begins to act like glue in the bloodstream, attaching itself to the amino groups in tissue proteins and forming tough, yellow-brown advanced-glycation end products. In their quest to find an all-natural solution. Western scientists scoured the globe for answers. Their search brought them to Ayurvedic practitioners in India who have been successfully balancing blood sugar levels by using natural, plant-based extracts and tonics.

Nature’s Blood Sugar Balancers

The Ayurvedic system of equalizing blood sugar relies on the properties of a precise combination of several plants. It’s a medical tradition that dates back thousands of years. Among the most prominent blood sugar “balancers” are Gymnema sylvestre, Pterocarpus marsupium, Momordica charantia, and Syzygium cumini. Gymnema sylvestre is a large, woody herb native to western India and tropical Africa. An amazing chemical compound, the gymnemic acid in this plant’s leaves is important in three ways. First, the acid restores the body’s natural ability to process sugar. Second, it keeps people from craving sweet food. (G. sylvestre’s common name, “gurmar,” means “sugar destroyer” in Hindi.) Finally, gymnemic acid helps normalize the cholesterol and triglycerides found in those who process sugar poorly.

Regenerate Damaged Cells

Daily doses of Gymnema sylvestre extract, which has been the subject of intense scientific study since the 1930s, have been proven to take as little as 10 days to affect blood glucose significantly (Shanmugasundaram 1990). Even more impressive is how this exceptional herb works: A landmark study of 22 men and women with severe sugar imbalances who took gymnemic acid for over 20 months showed that this nutrient can actually revive pancreatic cells that were once irrevocably damaged, allowing the body to produce more of its own insulin (Baskaran 1990). In another study, researchers noted that people who took G. sylvestre “reported a sense of greater well-being characterized by alertness of mind and body,” and some felt a lessening of discomfort in their limbs.

Another favorite of scientists and Ayurvedic practitioners alike, Pterocarpus marsupium offers a potent, multilayered defense against the onset of blood sugar imbalance in the form of a chemical compound called (-) epicatechin. Studies performed on lab animals with blood sugar imbalances showed that muscle, fat, heart, and liver tissues exposed to (-) epicatechin responded by consuming more oxygen and processing glucose more efficiently (Ahmad 1989). Like gymnemic acid, (-) epicatechin possesses amazing powers of regeneration, healing long-damaged pancreatic cells and allowing the body to wage its own war against sugar damage. Even better, (-) epicatechin takes blood-sugar management one step further. Using the plant extract before a meal stops absorption of the sugars in foods we consume, lessening the amount of sugar the pancreas has to process (Gupta 1962).

Protect the Pancreas

Because of intense thirst, often the first sign of blood sugar imbalance, the juice of Momordica charantia, or bitter melon, is a popular approach to equalizing blood sugar. Like (-) epicatechin, M. charantia stimulates glucose uptake in the organs, and like gymnemic acid, it encourages the body to produce more insulin (Rao 1999). Furthermore, scientists now believe that this herbal nutrient may act to halt the destruction of insulin-positive cells, protecting the pancreas from further sugar damage (Ahmed 1998). Moreover, studies have shown that, like gymnemic acid, bitter melon balances cholesterol and triglyceride levels (Rao 1999). A final entry in the Ayurvedic solution to blood sugar problems is Syzygium cumini. In the Indian Materia Medica, the powdered seeds of this plant are listed as a remedy for excessive thirst and sugar in the urine, both of which are characteristic of blood sugar imbalance. Two separate studies conducted on lab animals with and without blood sugar problems have demonstrated the sugar-controlling properties of S. cumini (Bansal 1981; Kedar 1983). In addition, as with G. sylvestre, P. marsupium, and M charantia, there were no reported side effects.

Halt the March of Time

Unfortunately, our love of sugar is not so “sweet” to us. The bonding of proteins and sugar in blood can lead to serious health problems and premature aging, which can be deadly. Thus, it is important to know that the sugars we eat can infiltrate our blood to the point where we become increasingly susceptible to a debilitating and incurable health problem. However, I am convinced that, armed with the sugar-balancing weapons I have described, we stand a chance of winning yet another battle in the war against aging. Dr. Charles Anderson is constantly seeking alternative choices to mainstream medicine, and several of them are revealed in his book Rage Against Age.

PYRUVATE

by Nickolaos D. Skouras, PhD.

 

http://www.coenzyme-a.com/piruvate_article.html

 

What is now emerging from nutritional research labs and appearing in the marketplace is a whole new generation of supplements based on metabolic “intermediaries” rather than “supporters”. Up to now, nutritional researchers have focused on improving body functions by providing nutritional supporters such as vitamins, minerals, and enzymes. Recently they have been experimenting with intermediary molecules that are directly involved in the biochemical reactions themselves. Pyruvate is an example of this new approach.

How does Pyruvate Work?

Pyruvate works primarily to enhance the transport of glucose into the muscle cell from the blood. In studies, it increased “glucose extraction” in leg endurance, 150% in perceived exer- tion, and 300% in arm endurance studies. During rest, it was found to increase muscle glycomolecule gen by 50% which should increase endurance significantly. Pyruvic acid is also directly involved in energy production in the body. Muscles contract by breaking down a high energy called ATP. Energy, as ATP, is generated when glucose breaks down in an anaerobic (without oxygen) process known as glycolysis. The end result of this process is either lactate or acetyl-CoA. Which one dominates is dependent upon the availability of oxygen. In intense exercise, the supply of oxygen is not high enough to keep up with the demands of the muscles fatigue. During lower intensity exercise, like jogging, cycling, etc., the oxygen supply can keep up with muscular demands and pyruvate turns into acetyl-CoA which then enters the mitochondria. Once there it enters an aerobic (with oxygen) process called Kreb’s Cycle which generates even more ATP than is possible with just glycolysis.

Most of the research carried out on pyruvate has been done by Dr. Ronald Stanko at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. He has carried out numerous studies which demonstrate that muscular endurance, using an arm and leg ergometer test, was increased by 20% in test subjects taking pyruvate. Stanko and his colleagues also used a double-blind study to determine that after ingesting pyruvate, subjects reported a 20% decrease in the perceived exertion required for the testing procedure. Since higher levels of pyruvate leads to more efficient energy production, via the Kreb’s cycle which bums fat for fuel, Dr. Stanko began looking for use in reducing body fat. He developed some experiments at the Clinical Research Centre where he placed overweight people on a low-caloric diet (500 cal/day) with an intake of 16gm/day of pyruvate. Subjects tested showed enhanced weight loss of 16% and fat loss of 23%.

Next, he gave obese women (average 2441bs.) on a l,000cal/day diet with an intake of 30gm/ day of pyruvate. Over a three week period, the subjects tested lost 131bs of weight and 91bs of fat, nearly as much as the obese people on only 16gm/day of pyruvate and a 500cal/day diet. These were test dosages, so it is important to realize that appropriate and effective dosages need to be assessed when attempting to use pyruvate as part of a long-term weight-loss program. A different group of researchers, Colker and colleagues, looked at lower dosages of pyruvate which . would be of use in the real world by average people. They put fifty-three subjects on 6gm/day in a six week double-blind study. At the end of the study, subjects taking pyruvate had an average 12% decrease in percentage body fat, 4.81bs of actual body fat, and had experienced a 2.2% increase in their basal metabolic rate. They also reported a significant increase in vitality with much less fatigue. Terry Newsome, a 38 year-old executive from Westlake, California, who has struggled with obesity for over 20 years said, “I’ve lost 391bs in less than 40 weeks. Other than taking 5gm/day of pyruvate, my eating and exercise habits have remained the same, yet I feel better than I ever dreamed possible. Now I can play with my 7 and 9 year-old boys for hours, where before my activity level was extremely limited.

After nearly 25 years of research, pyruvate is now available as a dietary supplement. Researchers have also discovered that as well as helping to enhance energy production in the body, it also may reduce the cellular damage caused by stress and intense exercise. Pyruvic acid is chemically unstable, so it is stabilized by forming a “salt” called pyruvate by combining it with either sodium, calcium, potassium, or magnesium. It sounds easy, but it is not a simple process and is one of the reasons it took such a long time to bring it into the marketplace. Calcium pyruvate is the most popular form of pyruvate, which is not usually a problem for most people who need calcium on a regular basis anyway. Pyruvate is found in the diet with naturally ingested amounts ranging from lOOmg to l-2gm/day in a variety of foods including certain fruits and vegetables – red apples contain 450mg – certain cheeses, etc. Published data as well as over 1,000 pages of unpublished data by a leading U.S. pharmaceutical company has revealed that the optimal dose of pyruvate is less than 5gm/day. Dr. Stanko says, “We see a linear response between 2 and 5gm/day and than the response plateaus. In another words, the response with 10 or 15gms is the same as with 5 grams.” With no reported side effects from ingesting up to 50gm/day, pyruvate appears to be a safe bet to try for both weight reduction and more energy.

http://www.coenzyme-a.com/enhancing.html

Enhancing Athletic Performance with Coenzyme-A Technologies’ Coenzyme ATM and Body ImageTM products

by Nickolaos D. Skouras, PhD.

What is Coenzyme-A?

Coenzyme-A is the most active metabolic enzyme in the human body. It operates in the body’s cells and blood where it initiates hundreds of important processes in the body. Coenzyme-A is expended by the metabolic processes of the body and constantly needs replenishing.

Innovative Pre-Workout and Competitive Sport Support Supplement

Coenzyme-A Technologies’s Coenzyme ATM and Body ImageTM products are the first pre-performance/workout supplements to focus on the need for Coenzyme-A and Acetyl Coenzyme-A during intensive exercise and strenuous physical performances. Coenzyme ATM and Body ImageTMsupply nutrients important for the formation of Coenzyme-A and Acetyl Coenzyme-A in an athlete’s body. Coenzyme-A and Acetyl Coenzyme-A are the gateway to the ATP cycle, where the release of cellular energy takes place. Developed by a professional trainer, a molecular biologist and a professional body builder, Coenzyme ATM and Body ImageTM are utilized by the athlete’s body to provide optimum support for the severe metabolic and physical exertion from intensive exercise and strenuous physical sports.

Anaerobic Metabolism in Intensive Exercise

When Athletes perform or exercise intensely, they quickly face a demand for energy that is greater than the amount of oxygen available to produce it. In order to continue to produce energy under these conditions the athlete’s body uses relatively inefficient anaerobic metabolism (metabolism that takes place in the absence of free oxygen).Coenzyme ATM and Body ImageTM address the nutritional needs of anaerobic metabolism and provide targeted support for high-intensity progressive resistance athletes.

Coenzyme-A and Acetyl Coenzyme-A – The Gateway to ATP ProductionTM

Glycogen is the main energy source for high intensity exercise. It is converted through many steps to enter the ATP cycle (also called TCA or Krebs cycle) to produce ATP, the basic biological energy source. In the anaerobic metabolism of intense exercise, these pre-ATP steps must be taken without additional oxygen. A crucial junction is the conversion of pyruvate (from glycogen) to Acetyl Coenzyme-A, where glycogen’s fuel enters the ATP cycle. If the cell lacks Coenzyme-A and the necessary nutrients to form Acetyl Coenzyme-A, pyruvate will be changed into lactate.Lactate must be reconverted or transported to the liver for processing through the Cori cycle. Researchers point to the build up of lactate in the blood and within the muscle cells as a possible indication of fatigue and reduced ability of the cells to produce energy and control muscle function. An excessive build up of lactate results in sore and stiff muscles. Coenzyme ATM and Body ImageTM contain a balanced combination of components that are used by the body to manufacture and utilize Coenzyme-A and Acetyl Coenzyme-A to convert pyruvate into energy during anaerobic metabolism.

Additional Bonus: Coenzyme-A and Lipid Metabolism

Coenzyme ATM and Body ImageTM each perform a double duty by supplying key nutrients athlete’s need to release energy both anaerobically (from glycogen) and from fats during aerobic metabolism (metabolism that takes place in the presence of oxygen). One of the main pathways to releasing energy from fats during aerobic metabolism produces the fatty acid alpha-ketoglutarate. Like pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate must be converted before it can be used in the ATP cycle. Alpha-ketoglutarate must first be transported by Carnitine to the inner mitochondrial membrane where energy production and fat burning take place. If a proper balance of Coenzyme-A, Carnitine and the other vital nutrients needed to form Acetyl Coenzyme-A are not maintained then fatty acids can not be converted into energy.

The nutrients supplied by Coenzyme ATM and Body ImageTM help the cells efficiently deliver fuel from aerobic and anaerobic metabolism to the ATP cycle for energy release. Because the human body can rapidly absorb these nutrients, Coenzyme ATM and Body ImageTM can be taken by an athlete shortly before a workout or sport performance to provide extra metabolic power when they need it the most.

Body ImageTM ingredients:

The benefits of Body ImageTM include:

  1. Working to primarily enhance the transport of glucose into the muscle cell from the blood. Scientific studies show it increases (glucose extraction) from 150% to 300%.
  2. Acetyl L-Carnitine, acetyl ester of L-Carnitine (a more biologically active form of Carnitine), is the carrier of fatty acids across mitochondrial membranes.
  3. In the body, Acetyl L-Carnitine modulates cellular concentration of free Coenzyme-A and Acetyl Coenzyme-A compounds, and is integrally involved in numerous cellular functions including energy production by exchanging across sub-cellular membranes. Acetyl L-Carnitine serves as a pool of acetyl groups to regenerate Acetyl Coenzyme-A from free Coenzyme-A.
  4. Increases energy production in the body within the processes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (also called TCA, ATP, Krebs, or citric acid cycle) and glycolitic cycles.
  5. Metabolizes fat and reduces cholesterol and triglycerides by increasing fat utilization.
  6. Stabilizes blood sugar levels, maintaining a healthy balance of insulin.
  7. Synthesizes fatty acids.
  8. Enhances physical performance.

Coenzyme ATM ingredients:

  • Proprietary formula
  • Coenzyme A Modulator Matrix-ITM1000mg
  • Pantethine
  • Calcium Pyruvate
  • Magnesium Malate-100mg
  • Acetyl-L-Carnitine(Hcl)
  • L-Cysteine(Hcl Monohydrate)
  • Pantothenic Acid(B5)-80mg
  • Calcium-41mg

The benefits of Coenzyme A

TM include:

  1. Reduces the damaging effects of stress and slows the deadly processes

of aging.

  1. Initiates the TCA cycle that produces more than 90% of the energy the body requires to sustain life.
  2. Initiates the chemical reactions required by the human body to utilize Coenzyme Q10, Coenzyme 1 (NADH/Enada) and many of the other nutrients the body needs to stay healthy.
  3. Initiates the manufacture of the specific substances that facilitate critical functions of the brain and adrenal glands.
  4. Supports the development and functions of the male and female sex organs that are essential to human existence.
  5. Acts as the “universal acetate carrier”; it is the primary biological cofactor used in acyl group transfers. It initiates the metabolism of fatty acids, and supports pyruvate oxidation and other acetylation reactions.
  6. Supports critical functions of the immune system and facilitates the repair of RNA, DNA and physical injury
  7. Facilitates the manufacture of connective tissue and the formation and repair of cartilage.
  8. Enhances physical performance and reduces the build up of lactate.

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http://www.coenzyme-a.com/naturalhealing.html

The Principles of Natural Healing

by Nickolaos D. Skouras, PhD.

In the United States we have come to believe in:

  1. the quick fix;
  2. the model of the body as a machine that can be fixed just as if it were a car;
  3. the goal of healing to be only the elimination of symptoms;
  4. the idea that there is “one cause – one disease.”

Natural healing seeks to create health by eliminating the imbalance (or disease) that produced the symptoms of illness in the first place. This process begins with the premise that the body is designed to heal itself, given the appropriate support. Determining what is appropriate nutritional support requires active participation on your part to become aware of what your own “Inner Healer” is telling you. If you are ready to make that commitment to yourself, this is what you need to know.

  1. Healing is a long process – it took time to get you where you are now it will take time to reverse. To rebuild a body to the cellular level takes awhile and this process is different from person to person.
  2. The body is a living, multidimensional organism, not a machine. The dynamics manifestations, and mechanisms of the physical body are based on its blueprint or energy pattern, and not solely on its chemical and physiological reactions. Emotions and mental attitudes have a great deal to do with the state of a body. Sometimes a disease process can be part of a spiritual, transformative process, in which case a physical treatment method may be only partially successful.
  3. Healing is a process and may not always be comfortable.(See below “About the Healing Process”)
  4. Donald 0. Rudin, MD,* has described disease as we know it in the United States today as one disease with different manifestations! He calls it the Modernization Disease Syndrome. He includes in this syndrome heart disease cancer, AIDS, diabetes, arthritis, colitis, mental disorders, etc.,, etc He sees that underlying this syndrome are imbalances in the regulatory mechanisms in the body resulting from “changes in lifestyle factors involving exercise stress, smoking, drugs, pollutants and especially a multiplicity of interacting dietary modifications which have not heretofore been evaluated for their collective effect.. He speaks of how both cancer and heart disease researchers see a dietary and life style component to each of these diseases “without mentioning each other’s findings, as though cancer and heart disease were unrelated illnesses instead of just different genetic manifestations of the same nutrition and lifestyle problem – i.e. The Modernization Disease Syndrome.

*Dr. Rudin is a graduate of Harvard Medical School, long time Director of the Department of Molecular Biology at the Pennsylvania Psychiatric Institute, and the author of me Omega-3 Phenomenon.

About the Healing Process

Don’t be alarmed if you feel worse after you start a wellness program than you did before. This is a good sign. This means that your body has built up enough strength inside to expel accumulated wastes. Although you may not feel well at that time, it is actually part of the healing process. It is important to understand what is happening during this process, what it means, and what you can do to assist this process.

Sometimes in the course of regaining vibrant health and optimum wellness using natural healing therapies, people go through a healing process. When stress and toxic wastes circulate inside your body, they damage your cells and tissues and weaken your body. This is recognized by medical science as a major cause of disease. Thus it is good for your health to get rid of these wastes.

The healing process is often accompanied by minor symptoms of cleansing such as aching, flu-like symptoms, headaches, runny nose, sore throat, diarrhea, constipation or other gastrointestinal symptoms, excess urination, irritableness, feeling tired, skin eruptions, gas, sweating, tearing, crying, bad breath, sleeping more, coughing, or emotions surfacing and releasing. Essentially these are all the different ways the body is working to overcome the condition and become well again. Please do not stop taking the supplements you may want to cut back at little if this process seems too overwhelming.

In cases where you have a chronic condition that your body has adapted to, you may have no symptoms until the new supplement is taken. You had no symptoms before because the chronic condition had weakened your body to the point where it did not have the ability to produce symptoms. Now your body is working to overcome this condition and become well again.

You can assist the healing process by drinking lots of pure water, using a high quality powdered fiber supplement and getting plenty of rest.

After a few hours, or a few days, the cleansing process will end. You will then experience a state of greater health.

http://www.coenzyme-a.com/enzyme_therapy.html

A Complete Book of Enzyme Therapy

By Dr. Anthony Cichoke

A Complete & Up-To-Date Reference to Effective Remedies Using Enzymes, Vitamins, and Minerals

How important are enzymes, anyway? Important enough to sustain all life on Earth according to the world s health experts. In the past decade, science has discovered much about how enzymes can improve our health and help us overcome various disorders Enzyme products have been readily available in Europe but not North America, where the medical profession has remained ignorant of their roles and value. In addition, our bodies have been systematically enzyme-depleted by an “overprocessed” national diet and a growing amount of enzyme-inhibiting chemicals found in our food supply and environment:However if we were to initiate an enzyme-rich diet and augment that diet with enzyme supplements then enzymes could strike back aginst disease and reclaim their roles in our lives as essential healers. In The Complete Book of Enzyme Therapy, Dr. Anthony Cichoke draws upon his twenty-five years of intense study and work with enzymes to help us understand and utilize the various benefits of this best kept secret in health.

The Complete Book of Enzyme Therapy is divided into three pans Pan One introduces us to enzymes-what they are, what they do, and how they have been depleted from our foods and our bodies. It also outlines the steps to maximizing enzymes in your diet and introduces Dr. Cichoke-(Enzyme Absolution System Enhancers) method of healing. In Part Two, Dr. Cichoke offers several enzyme therapy programs to treat over 150 disorders, from acne to yeast infections. Part Three presents other comPlementary therapies that can be incorporated into your treatment programs, such as Dr. Cichoke’s Five-Step Jump-Start Enzyme Program. There are dozens of helpful charts and graphs including a troubleshooting chart for health disorders, a fifty-question Personal Stress Scale, and even recipes for making your own healthy yogurts at home.

For more information about The Complete Book of Enzyme Therapy or the author, please contact Elizabeth Croteau at 1-800-548-5757 ext. 118.

Book Review
by
A. HOFFER, M.D., PH.D.
A NEW LOOK AT CHRONIC DISORDERS
AND
SYSTEMIC ENZYME THERAPY

This is the second volume published by Dr. Cichoke dealing with enzyme therapy. But in this volume he discusses the use of these enzymes in the treatment of chronic diseases. These chronic diseases have become the major problem facing modern medicine. Our track record in dealing with these conditions has been very poor, even though each year more and more powerful drugs are released designed to try and help. Not only are these drugs relatively ineffective, they also carry a heavy burden of toxic reactions. Enzymes, if they are as good as the drugs, are therefore very much better because they are free of side effects. The chronic conditions described as responsive to enzyme therapy are immune complex disorders which include virus diseases, the arthritides, multiple sclerosis, aging, and cancer. The author refers to studies which show that almost all patients with shingles respond well and quickly to enzyme therapy used as a salve, taken internally, or injected. There are 116 references, thus giving the reader a chance to become familiar with this imposing literature. These two books make a fine set.

http://www.coenzyme-a.com/alpha_lipoic_acid_article.html

Alpha Lipoic Acid

Natural Health Sept-Oct, 1998

Alpha-lipoic acid. Author/s: Sarah Fremerman

WHAT IT IS Alpha-lipoic acid, also known as lipoic acid, is a nutrient produced naturally by the body that helps cells to metabolize energy and acts as a powerful antioxidant.

HEALING CLAIMS The charged particles known as free radicals are implicated in many health conditions, including heart disease and cancer. Because antioxidants help to neutralize the effects of free radicals, lipoic acid’s exceptional antioxidant strength may be useful in treating a wide range of health problems.

And it is especially effective in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy-the nerve degeneration that frequently accompanies diabetes-which causes pain tingling, and numbness in the hands and feet.

HOW IT WORKS Unlike vitamin C (which is water soluble and works only on the inside of cells) and vitamin E (which is fat soluble and only works within fatty cell membranes), lipoic acid is both, and so is extraordinarily good at protecting cells from free radical damage. And lipoic acid “recycles” other key antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and glutathione. These antioxidants lose electrons when they zap free radicals; lipoic acid replenishes these electrons, restoring their fighting power.

As a treatment for diabetes, lipoic acid not only prevents nerve damage from oxidation, but also lowers blood sugar levels by promoting glucose metabolism.

THE EVIDENCE Lester Packer, Ph.D., a cell biology professor at the University of California at Berkeley, and his colleagues examined more than 150 studies that looked at the antioxidant properties of lipoic acid. Their review article, published in Free Radical Biology & Medicine in 1995, cited one study in which researchers blocked blood flow to the brain in rats, simulating a stroke. (When cells are cut off from their blood supply, they begin to die and trillions of free radicals are produced,) The rats that had been given lipoic acid were four times more likely to survive the stroke than those that were not treated.

In another study, published in Diabetes Care, 73 patients with adult-onset diabetes were given either 800 mg of lipoic acid or a placebo every day for four months. Patients who took the lipoic acid experienced slight nerve regeneration, while patients taking a placebo showed continued deterioration.

Another study tested the effects of lipoic acid in 10 patients suffering from diabetic polyneuropathy. Before treatment, six of the patients reported having moderate pain, while four had severe pain. After 21 days of treatment, five patients reported having no pain, four had moderate pain, and only one had severe pain.

SAFETY In extremely high doses, antioxidants are known to actually cause oxidative damage, warns Teepu Siddique, M.D., a professor of cell and molecular biology at Northwestern University Medical School in Chicago. Although Siddique is currently studying the effects of lipoic acid on Lou Gehrig’s disease, he cautions that the long-term effects of lipoic acid and other antioxidant supplements on humans are not yet well understood. “This is a whole large area that hasn’t been studied,” says Siddique.

In clinical studies over the past three decades, a daffy dosage of 300 to 600 milligrams of lipoic acid has been shown to be safe, with no serious side effects reported. Because the best dose for each individual is different, consult your health care practitioner to determine whether you should take lipoic acid and at what dose.

WHEN TO TAKE According to Burt Berkson. M.D., Ph.D., author of Alpha Lipoic Acid: The Breakthrough Antioxidant (Prima Publishing, 1998), people over age 40 are most likely to benefit from supplementing with lipoic acid because the body produces less lipoic acid as it ages. Vegetarians may also want to consider supplementation since red meat and organ meats (heart and liver) are the richest dietary sources ofalpha-lipoic acid. Lipoic acid is also present-but in very small amounts-in potatoes, carrots, yams, beets: and spinach.

  1. The New Era of Glyconutrients

by Nickolaos D. Skouras, PhD.

http://www.coenzyme-a.com/glyconutrient_article.html

The most important discovery of this century for the immune system may be something called glyconutrients. They are not vitamins, minerals, herbals, homeopathics or enzymes. They are a class all to themselves. They are supplements derived from nature that have been formulated based on a new understanding in biochemistry of how our bodies maintain health at the cellular level.

Our Immune Systems at Risk

Cancer, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune diseases (e.g. lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis), osteoporosis, genetic diseases, foreign viruses. AIDS, and infant mortality seem to be more prevalent today than ever. Why are we experiencing these mounting health challenges?

The reasons are quite simple. According to the 1992 Earth Summit, the USA has the worst soil in the world – 85% depleted. This means the potency of our food supply is not able to sustain optimum health. The amount of toxins in our environment has reached a level where the FDA now has designated “permissible” levels of dioxin and other harmful chemicals in the environment. Today we have over 300 chemical toxins including dioxin in the tissues that were not found in any human before 1940. These toxins have been shown to bind to receptors, blocking important enzymatic reactions in the body. One of the harmful effects of toxins such as DDT and dioxins is that they mimic hormones in the body causing disruption and confusion in the endocrine system.

Processed food and fast foods are depriving us of even more essential nutrients. Many scientists believe that commercial farming, which burns out nutrients and adds poisons to the soil, as well as shipping foods “green” to ripen upon trucks, are major contributors to ill health. Many corporations continue activities harmful to our health to increase profits at the cost of our ecosystem and food chain. They do not inform the public about the true extent of the problem created by toxic substances and harmful additives in our foods nor about the environmental pollution generated from their manufacturing plants. The recent movie, A Civil Action, depicts this lack of accountability in the corporate arena. Finally, according to research scientist named Andreas Hartman “A class of broad spectrum antibiotics in drinking water is causing toxicity to human DNA! Given these harsh challenges, one might seriously ask how can we best protect ourselves and optimize our health?

Our Body’s Capability to Defend and Protect Itself

Every human is equipped with natural killer cells that identify and kill tumor cells and cells infected with viruses or some types of fungi or bacteria. Thus, the body has the genetic capacity to defend itself against viruses and bacterias, to cleanse itself of destructive toxins, to absorb and utilize nutrients for fuel, and to heal itself from practically any kind of damage or disease. So why doesn’t it always perform these functions? Research studies that have followed our immune system function over time have shown that on average, Americans have lost over 25% of natural killer cell function (our first line of defense) over the past 15 years due to toxins, viruses, and daily stresssors. It seems we have the ability, but are lacking the energy required to adequately protect, detoxify, and heal.

New Discoveries in Glycobiology

Healthy bodies, comprised of many components working together in sophisticated harmony, must have accurate biochemical communication to function correctly. In its most basic form, this communication occurs at the cellular level and is referred to by molecular biologists as cell-to-cell communication. When you look at any body function, it is clear they all require cellular communication. A major breakthrough has occurred recently with the discovery of how our cells communicate; that cells have a language, made up of “letters” and “words.” The “words” are called glycoproteins made up of various sugar molecules known as saccharides attached in pearl-like strands to protein stems. Some of the connections for the saccharides are to lipids forming glycolipids. These “words” extend off the surface of every cell and can change thousands of times in a second. Cells actually touch each other to communicate reading each other’s cell surface messages. Disease and dysfunction occurs when the components necessary for cell-to-cell communication are absent. As John Hodgson wrote in an article called “Capitalizing on Carbohydrates”, “Almost without exception, whenever two or more living cells interact in a specific way, cell surface carbohydrates will be involved. From the first meeting of sperm and egg, through embryo genesis, development and growth, carbohydrate molecules confer exquisite specificity upon cell-cell interactions.

The Key to Healthy Cells and Healthy Bodies

An increasing number of research scientists and doctors believe that eight specific carbohydrates (saccharides), represent the key to cellular communication as these sugars combine with proteins to create the glycoprotein chemical messengers. Only two of the eight are commonly found in our typical modem diets: glucose and galactose. The other sugars are Mannose, Fucose, Xylose, N- Acetylglucosamine, N-Acetylgalactosamine, and N-Acetylneuraminic acid. The body has the potential to convert glucose and galactose to the other six through enzyme exchanges. However, the conversion process requires considerable energy, and is susceptible to interference from certain disease processes, various medications and free radicals. Oxidative damage from free radicals can also cause destruction of existing glycoprotein structures, making it necessary to convert some sugars into others to repair the damage. Living in our current environment, our bodies simply cannot keep up with this conversion/repair process. Further validation of the essential nature of these carbohydrates can be found in an article about the immune-enhancing benefits of breastfeeding. Five of the eight carbohydrates thought to be essential for cell-to-cell communication are ingredients in human breast milk and also in the glyconutrient formulas.

Early Research Results with Glyconutrient Supplementation

The potential for supporting our immune systems and enhancing cell-to-cell communication with glyconutnents is profound. One immunologist, Dr. Darryl See has found that natural killer cell activity increases by 50 percent after glyconutritional supplementation in the average healthy Person. With glyconutritional supplementation among chronic fatigue patients who have impaired immune system function, natural killer cell activity has been shown to increase by over 400 percent. There is a growing body of scientific studies supporting the potential health benefits of glyconutritional supplementation for various health conditions including fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue, ADHD diabetes, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus. A new study, published in February 1999 reported a 95% kil ing activity of the Candida Albicans yeast in incubation with glyconutritional supplementation.

More studies are now underway due to the breakthrough findings in this initial research period In summary glyconutntional supplements seem to allow the human body to manifest more of its potential by enhancing cellular communication. These nutrients may be a critical component in supporting the natural function of the immune system which is at risk in our toxic, denatured enviorment.

http://www.coenzyme-a.com/candidiasis_article.html

  1. Candida, Candidiasis, Yeast infections

by Nickolaos D. Skouras, PhD.

Description

Candida, Candidiasis, Yeast infections. Do some of these symptoms belong to you? You are developing new allergies (eg. to foods) as you grow older; you are always tired, poor digestion, gas, heartburn; sugar cravings, irritable bowel, frequent headaches; poor memory, “fogged in” feeling, dizziness, recurring depression, vaginal infections, menstrual difficulties, prostatitis, urinary tract infections, infertility, hay fever, postnasal drip, habitual coughing, catch colds easily, sore throat, athlete’s foot, skin rash, psoriasis, cold extremities, arthritis-like symptoms, feel miserable in general. If you have some combination of these symptoms then you may have got candidiasis. Almost true! You may have candidiasis. Or you could be suffering from mercury, fluoride or lead toxicity, or the Epstein-Barr syndrome, or an allergy or a glandular imbalance, or… almost anything. Most likely you’ve got a combination of problems. By treating Candida, you will make your body that much stronger to deal with the other conditions. If you have no trace of a Candida problem (unlikely), you will still benefit from a thorough intestinal clean-up as that afforded by a Psyllium cleanser and Bentonite detoxificant, and your overall condition will improve regardless of what you are suffering from.

http://www.coenzyme-a.com/candida_aldehyde_detox_pathway_article.html

The Candida/Aldehyde detox pathway and the Molybdenum Connection

by Jann Weiss

As it relates to Candida, those of you who have read the work of Dr. Orion Truss, or who have seen quotes by others from his work, will already have been alerted to his assertion that much of the harm done by Candida results from its waste product, acetaldehyde, which in turn can affect the metabolic, neurological, endocrine, and immune systems. Further, that few chemicals can create so much havoc in the body as acetaldehyde can. It may interfere with the receptors for acetylcholine which is supposedly the major neurotransmitter in the corpus callosum.

Formaldehyde, obviously then, is related to acetaldehyde in the aldehyde chain of chemicals.

Dr. Stephen Rochlitz worked with cross-crawl brain integration exercises with dyslexic patients with formaldehyde taped to these patients right brain hemisphere, and sometimes the left.

Acetaldehyde is a fungal waste product.

Dr. Stephen Cooter, in his book “Beating Chronic Disease”, ProMotion Publishing, San Diego, California, states that “Candida is responsible for flooding the system with an accumulation of toxic acetaldehydes. Acetaldehydes are known to poison tissues — accumulating in the brain, spinal cord, joints, muscles and tissues.”

Dr. Cooter then goes on to describe how he learned from a chiropractor, Dr. Carol Cooper [this name came up on this List way back] that molybdenum — a mineral — not a medication, but a nutrient, had a blanket reputation for breaking down yeast by-products into forms that the body could excrete. Coincidentally, Dr. Cooter read the monogram by Dr. Walter Schmitt “Molybdenum for Candida Albicans Patients and Other Problems” through Dr. Cooper. [Interestingly, these are all chiropractor, Drs. Roschlitz, Cooper, and Schmitt.]

I’m beginning to see a glimmer of some possible connections here. Dr. Roschlitz’s work, and Dr. Walter Schmitt’s, although slightly different, seems similar to me to the principle of Dr. Nambupridad’s work with NAET, and perhaps then, holding the substance, when the body is worked on through one of their modalities, might not seem so strange after all. I think I see a common denominator here. Worth exploring? Perhaps….

Back to Dr. Cooter and Dr. Schmitt: “Molybdenum is chemically responsible for breaking down acetaldehyde into acetic acid. Acetaldehyde cannot be excreted from the body; it accumulates. Acetic acid can be, though, and the body naturally removes it or changes it into acetyl coenzyme A, a major player in the body’s energy system…. Acetaldhyde accumulations in tissue are responsible for weakness in muscles, irritation, and PAIN.”

And now for the good part (g), directly quoted from Dr. Walter Schmitt:

“Chemical aldehydes are best known as fragrances.” [Shall I repeat that?] “Chemical aldehydess are best known as fragrances…. Ethanol, or drinking alcohol, is also precessed to acetaldehyde. …the body has an enzyme which breaks down the aldehydes to less toxic substances. This enzyme is aldehyde oxidase, or sometimes, aldehyde dehydrogenase. Aldehydes encountered dietarily or environmentally or produced in the body must be handled by aldehyde oxidase metabolic pathways.

Acetaldehyde is a paraticularly toxic substance which, in addition to being produced by threonine and ethanol, is a product of the metabolism (i.e. fermentation) of carbohydrate in yeast — hence the Candida connection. Acetaldehyde is thought to be the major source of tissue damage in alcoholics rather than ethanol itself. The conversion of acetaldehyde into acetic acid” for this reaction to occur, threonine to acetaldehyde to acetic acid to acetyl coenzyme A, NAD (niacine amide) is required, and aldehyde oxidase is dependent of riboflavin, iron, and molybdenum. These forgoing nutrients could be helpful to Candida albicans patients, and others who are sensitive to various fragrances and airborne odors. Those patients with aldehyde sensitivity are incredibly sensitive to any type of fragrance.

By coincidence, (or is it?) there’s a little squibb in the newsletter from the Environmental Health Association of Dallas on fragrance. “Perfume today is not made from flowers but from toxic chemicals….. More than 4,000 chemicals are used in fragrances. Of these, 95 percent are made from petroleum. Some toxic chemicals found in fragrances: toluene, ethanol, acetone, formaldehyde, limonene, benzene derivatives, methylene chloride, and many others known to cause cancer, birth defects, infertility, nervous system damage, or other injuries…. Exposure to scented products can cause exhaustion, weakness, ‘hay fever’, dizziness, difficulty concentrating, headaches, rashes, swollen lymph glands, muscle aches and spasms, heart palpitations, nausea, stomach cramps, vomiting, asthma attacks, neuromotor dysfunction, seizures, and loss of consciousness.” This was reprinted from No Perfume Means Healthier Air brochure, Breath of Fresh Air Battleaxe, Oakland, California.

And from another source comes another connection — from Dr. Robert Atkins’ newsletter: Dr. Atkins is writing about Pantethine which he prescribes to his Crohn’s Disease and Colitis patients, with acknowledgement to Dr. Melvin Werbach for Dr. Werbach’s study that demonstrated that people with colitis have markedly decreased Coenzyme A activity if the mucosal surface of their colons, even when the blood levels of pantothenic acid are normal. Dr. Atkins concluded, based on his success with these patients of his, that Pantethine bypasses the block in converting Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid) to Coenzyme A. But also, that Pantethine is a growth factor for lactobacillus bulgaricus and bifidobacterium that we know help control yeast overgrowth (and Dr. Cooter also speaks of it in his book). Candida, according to antibody studies done at the Atkins Center, is involved in more than 80 percent of all cases of Crohn’s and Colitis.

And for autoimmune problems, Dr. Atkins states, ” For all conditions that a doctor might prescribe prednisone — allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, lupus, and olther autoimmune diseases, pantethine can be safely, effectively substituted. I routinely use it for all of those conditions on hundreds of my patients, and it’s valuable in weaning them off steroidal drugs, or certainly in allowing a lower dose….

By upping body levels of a body enzyme, pantethine counteracts brain fog, certain allergic sensitivities, and some consequences of alcoholism. (And here it is –) … In people with candidiasis, the enzyme fights off a toxic byproduct called acetaldehyde, which is thought to cause brain fog, often-suffered but rarely diagnosed…. Acetaldehyde also is suspected of being responsible for some symptoms of alcoholism, including alcoholic heart muscle disease. The pantethine-stimulated enzyme also detoxifies formaldehyde, an all too frequent offender for chemically sensitive individuals.”

In summary, Dr. Atkins is saying that Pantethine, without toxic consequences, can reduce cholesterol, counuteract oxidation, stimulate the growth of friendly bacteria, and fight allergies, inflammation, autoimmune disruptions, and alcoholism.

In case you wondered, Dr. Cooter and Dr. Schmtt suggest 300 micrograms of Molybdenum in three divided doses per day, and further suggests staying on it for at least 4 months.. Dr. Atkins suggests 450 to 900 miligrams daily of Pantethine with an equal amount of Pantethenic Acid.

http://www.coenzyme-a.com/acelyl_l_carnitine_article.html

  1. Acetyl-L-Carnitine: Metabolism and Applications in Clinical Practice

by John H. Furlong N.D.

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Recent research has clarified many of the clinical applications of L-Carnitine and its related compounds, leading into new areas of potential use. Promising therapeutic applications of an ester form of carnitine, acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALC) are derived from observations that this compound readily crosses the blood- brain barrier and improves neuronal energetics and repair mechanisms while modifying acetylcholine production in the CNS. Studies show that HIV infection and CFIDS, AlzheimerÍs dementia and depression of the elderly, and diabetic neuropathies may respond positively to ALC administration. Effects of ALC on ethyl alcohol (ETOH) metabolism have been observed and hold significant potential in preventing sequelae of habitual ETOH abuse. (Alt Med Rev 1996;1(2):85-93)

Synthesis and Function

L-Carnitine is synthesized in mammalian liver, kidney and brain tissue with lysine, methionine and vitamin C among the required substrates and co-factors. The main body stores are in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Acetyl-L-Carnitine is one of the esters of carnitine and is found along with free plasma carnitine and other acyl esters of varying chain length.1

The formation of ALC originates with cytoplasmic thiokinase (See Figure 1) which forms acylcoenzyme A from free-fatty acids, ATP and Coenzyme A (CoA). This substance is combined with carnitine to form acylcarnitine via carnitine palmitoyltransferase I. Entry into the mitochondrial matrix occurs through an exchange system of acylcarnitine/carnitine via carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase. For each acylcarnitine molecule traversing the inner mitochondrial membrane, a molecule of carnitine is shuttled out. On the inner mitochondrial membrane, carnitine palmitoyltransferase II converts acylcarnitine to carnitine, liberating acylCoA. Finally, the production of ALC and CoA from carnitine and acetylCoA (obtained via ß oxidation of acyl CoA) occurs via carnitine acetyltransferase present in the mitochondrial matrix.2

Carnitine and its esters prevent toxic accumulations of fatty acids and acyl CoA (in the cytoplasm and mitochondria, respectively) while providing acetyl CoA for energy generation in the mitochondria. ALCÍs enzymatic formation in the mitochondrial matrix is reversible, providing free Coenzyme A and acetyl CoA which can readily be exchanged across membranes, thus providing metabolic energy to intracellular organelles.3 Carnitine acetyltransferase is a reversible enzyme system which appears to be linked with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), thereby supplying intracellular acetylcholine while the opposite reaction liberates acetylCoA.

This mechanism can explain the improved cholinergic neurotransmission and enhanced intracellular energetics observed in ALC research.4, 5 Studies in humans and guinea pigs have shown that supplemental choline is able to decrease the urinary excretion of carnitine while resulting in increased muscle carnitine stores, giving further evidence of this enzymatic linkage.6

HIV, CFS and Immunomodulation

HIV infection presents numerous problems related to the carnitines. Human and animal studies show an increased urinary excretion of carnitine when pivampicillin is administered. Animal studies indicate that pivampicillin interferes with myocardial carnitine metabolism subsequent to pivalocarnitine formation in the heart, leading to increased excretion. AZT can result in muscle carnitine depletion, contributing to the lipid accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction characteristic of this myopathy. Malabsorption may decrease carnitine availability at the cellular level, while HIV-related renal dysfunction may increase excretion of the compound. Thus it is postulated that a subgroup of HIV-infected individuals are burdened with secondary carnitine deficiencies.7-9

ALC and L-CarnitineÍs effect on leukocyte proliferation and production of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) provide new potential applications of the compounds in HIV-infected individuals. Both mitogenic and antigenic proliferation of lymphocytes have been increased with LC and ALC in vitro.7

Peripheral blood monocytes in AIDS patients are low in intracellular carnitine. Serum levels may be high, low or normal and is therefore unreliable as an indicator of carnitine metabolism.10,11 Peripheral blood monocytes from HIV-infected individuals were cultured with the mitogen PHA and ALC for 48 hours. PHA-induced proliferation was significantly improved and a dimunition of TNF-a released by the cultured monocytes was also observed to be significant. As TNF-a has a key role in HIV-mediated apoptotic cell destruction, decreased levels of this cytokine may have protective effects on CD4+ cell populations.12

In a brief clinical trial with AIDS patients, L-Carnitine was administered (6 g/day for 14 days) and lymphocyte proliferation improved in response to mitogen stimulation. Importantly, the increased monocyte production did not lead to increased HIV proliferation. TNF-a levels were decreased and ß-2 microglobulin, an indicator of HIV progression to AIDS was also diminished.13,14 Thus, LC and ALC represent novel approaches in complementary treatment of HIV infections and may correct secondary carnitine deficiencies found in these patients.

Another potential application of ALC involving immunomodulation is in the management of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). Low serum levels of ALC have been observed in many CFS patients. The clinical presentation of marked fatigue correlates with periods of low serum ALC while periods of recovery are characterized by higher levels of ALC. 15 Further implications for ALC treatment of CFS patients are findings that plasma levels of ß-endorphin and cortisol are raised in humans given an I.V. bolus of ALC.16 As abnormal cortisol levels have been observed in some patients with CFS, and the myalgic symptoms in this condition are well known, ALC administration might be particularly helpful in normalizing HPA perturbations via feedback mechanisms and decreasing myalgic pain via peripheral neuron response to ß-endorphin.17

AlzheimerÍs Dementia/CNS Effects

Research has examined the effects of ALC in various dementias, cognitive defects and age-related disorders. These observations represent the clearest understanding and application of ALC in clinical practice. It has been established that ALC traverses the blood-brain barrier efficiently, with CSF concentrations increasing significantly via both an I.V. and oral route in patients with severe dementia.18 There are multiple mechanisms of action responsible for ALC-induced CNS changes: enhanced cholinergic neurotransmission, neuronotrophic effects (via binding of cortisol and increased nerve growth factor production in the hippocampus),muscarinic receptor changes as well as decreased free radical generation and lipofuscin deposits in animal models.18,19

Calvani, et al summarized the neuroprotective benefits of ALC in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, substantia nigra and muscarinic receptor portions of the brain. These included antioxidant activity, improved mitochondrial energetics, stabilization of intracellular membranes and cholinergic neurotransmission. In the 500+ patients with AlzheimerÍs or other age-related dementias presented in this review, it was concluded that oral ALC administration may slow the progression of degeneration. The dose of ALC varied from 1.5 grams/day to 3.0 grams/day. Patient tolerance was excellent with no clinically significant differences in side effects between the treatment and placebo groups. 20

Patients with AlzheimerÍs dementia showed improvement in both clinical and CNS measurements in one double-blind placebo controlled trial over a 1-year period. Although this was a small study (7 patients in the treatment group), the findings were significant in elucidating the protective/reparative effects of ALC on the neuronal membranes.21 Another study showed significant improvements in all cognitive, behavioral and emotive measurements except anxiety in a 40-day double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 40 patients with AlzheimerÍs. This work was particularly helpful in outlining clinical methods of patient assessment which may be applicable in the out-patient setting. 22

A study of 6 months duration on an out-patient basis showed mild improvements in tasks of attention and timing. Memory facilitation was improved only in the more impaired subset of the treatment group. This subset also showed a significant increase of ALC levels in the CSF. 23 MartignoniÍs study showing increased ß-endorphin production in response to ALC administration presents yet another potential benefit of ALC in the patient with AlzheimerÍs dementia because of their tendancy to have reduced ß-endorphin levels.

Some positive results in the above studies may be due to enhanced memory trace formation, a key issue in cognitive research. Animal models indicate that protein kinase C translocation from the cytosol (soluble form) to the neuronal membrane (particulate form) of the hippocampus and cortex may serve as a marker for memory formation. ALC is able to increase particulate protein kinase C in rat cortex at a dose (60mg/kg) that also elicits improvements in learning, providing evidence of ALCÍs participation in memory formation via neuronal membrane modification. This effect was lost after long incubation times or higher concentrations of ALC, suggesting multiple control mechanisms for the protein kinase C.24

Depression/Cortisol Levels

The effects of ALC on cortisol levels have been varied. In one 40-day study of depressed elderly adults, significant normalization of elevated cortisol levels and improved scores on mood assessments resulted from ALC administration (0.5g/qid p.o.). In 43% of the patients, the treatment was so successful that they were determined to be in clinical remission.25 This supports an earlier study of 24 depressed adults treated over a 2-month period where the depressive symptoms improved to a high degree of significance, especially in the group with the most severe clinical presentation.26 However, in the study by Martignoni, with non-depressed healthy male volunteers, the intravenous administration of ALC raised cortisol levels along with ß-endorphin. It appears that ALC may have an amphoteric effect on cortisol levels, raising or lowering levels according to HPA feedback mechanisms.

Diabetes/Neurological Symptoms

Peripheral neuropathy associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) is extremely common, approaching over 28% of some populations.27 Various mechanisms of neuronal damage have been postulated, including polyol pathway generation of sorbitol and free radical damage. Reduced nerve conduction velocities occur in DM and have led to experimental models assessing this function in rats. Animals given ALC after experimental diabetes induction have improved nerve conduction velocities.28,29 Correction of abnormal enteric peptides associated with autonomic neuropathies was also observed in animal models. 30

Human studies also show beneficial effects of ALC in neuropathies. Intramuscular administration of the compound given to 63 patients with painful neuropathy for 15 days showed significant improvement in motility and subjective measures.31 A small double-blind study in humans again using the I.M. route of administration, showed highly significant improvement in painful neuropathies. Again the anti-oxidant function of ALC was believed to be a likely mechanism of action.32

Aging and Repair of Neuronal Tissue

The changes which occur in CNS tissue of aged laboratory animals as well as tissue samples from humans have both structural and metabolic components. One of these changes is the reduced surface contact area found in dendritic networks. The capacity for recovery and expansion of the dendritic network does, however, remain present in older individuals.33 ALC was administered orally to rats over a 6-22 month period after which brain synaptic tissue was evaluated for size and number of junctions. The expected decline in synaptic contact area was partially reversed in the treatment groups.34

Human studies confirm the impact ALC can have on neurological function. Bonavita observed significant improvements in aged subjects participating in a 40-day, double-blind trial with oral ALC, 3 g/day. The first changes tended to relate to spatial recognition, judgment and depression; second-phase changes centered on short and long-term memory, self-care, and sociability. Intravenous administration of ALC elicited increased visual evoked potential amplitude among both healthy volunteers and patients with various dementias. The changes persisted over a 50-90 minute period, showing the rapid clearing of the substance by renal tubular mechanisms. 35

Repair of tissue atrophy after neuronal damage is a function of the length of denervation time and rate of regeneration of neuronal tissue. In a comparison study of the nerve-regeneration effects of L-Carnitine and ALC, there were significant improvements in the ALC group of animals compared to the L-Carnitine group. This was postulated to be related to ALCÍs unique ability to supply acetyl groups for mitochondrial energy production.36

Clinical applications of the neuro-regenerative effects of ALC were investigated in an experimental model of post-ischemic cerebral injury. In a simulation of the cerebral ischemia present after cardiac arrest, ALC was administered intravenously to canines. Their recovery was assessed via neurologic deficit scores and neurochemical markers. The ALC group fared significantly better than controls in post-ischemic recovery parameters. 37

Cardiovascular Effects

Acetyl-L-Carnitine is a substance which retains the well-known effects of L-Carnitine on muscle tissue; i.e., long-chain fatty acid transport for ATP production within the mitochondria. ALCÍs further impact on both skeletal muscle and the myocardium include antioxidant effects leading to less lipid peroxidation, thus protecting exercising muscle tissue from free-radical damage.38 Additionally, it may improve cardiolipin levels in the aged heart, a substance which maintains crucial membrane factors in cardiac mitochondria and thus ensures efficient phosphate transport for energy. In a rat mitochondrial model, it was shown that ALC administered to aged animals returned cardiolipin levels to that of young ones. 39

Cerebral and peripheral circulation are apparently affected differently by administration of ALC. Ten patients with recent cerebral vascular accidents were given ALC intravenously which resulted in acute enhancement of cerebral blood flow to areas of ischemia via sensitive SPEC tomography assessments.40 In evaluation of patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease, two studies show that the effect of carnitine esters on improved walking distance was due to metabolic vs. hemodynamic changes and that L-Propionylcarnitine was clearly superior to L-Carnitine in this effect. These studies demonstrate the ability of carnitine esters to positively influence tissue energetics which may prove beneficial in a chronic administration model.41,42

Acetyl-L-Carnitine and Ethanol

A number of interesting reports on the relationship between hepatic detoxification of ethanol and carnitines have been produced. It is observed that pretreatment of both rats and chickens with carnitines resulted in a prolonged half-life of ethanol in the blood.43,44 Additionally, a protective effect on prenatal ethanol damage to thalamic and cortical regions in rats was observed with administration of ALC.47 Two studies by Cha and Sachan with isolated rat hepatocytes harvested after pretreatment with ALC elucidate the mechanism of these interesting effects. An inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase was present and significantly increased when the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide:ALC ratio was low. It was also shown that L-Carnitine itself was much less effective at producing this inhibition.47,48 As a final addition to these findings of great therapeutic interest, oral administration of ALC was shown to improve the cognitive impairments of 55 chronic alcoholics.48

We may infer from this work that patients with high ethanol intake may have prolonged ethanol half-life if they are concurrently taking ALC supplementation. This effect may be due in part to low niacin levels and could be modified by niacin administration. ALCÍs cerebro-thalamic protection observed in rat pups exposed to ethanol prenatally and the apparent hepato-protective effects observed in models of chronic alcohol use provide exciting possibilities for preventing the intergenerational sequelae of high ethanol intake.

Adverse Effects/Interactions

In 130 patients studied by Spagnoli, et al over a one-year duration, the administration of oral ALC (2 grams/day) slowed the progression of AlzheimerÍs disease. Patients in the treatment group experienced significant positive effects, ascertained by neuropsychological tests, in a variety of areas. At the 3-month mark, agitation was experienced by 11% of patients taking ALC and 6% of patients taking placebo, a difference which was not statistically significant. The incidence of agitation in both groups decreased to 7% by the 6-month follow-up.49 Adverse reactions occurred in a small study of 36 patients with AlzheimerÍs dementia. Eight of the 11 withdrawals from the active group reported nausea/vomiting or agitation/aggression within the first 14 days of the trial. No laboratory abnormalities were noted in the study. It was suggested that administration of the ALC follow a meal to minimize symptoms.50

In addition to the minor adverse reactions to ALC from the above human trials, a cautionary note may be extrapolated from rat studies whereby an intracerebral injection of ALC induced epileptic phenomena.51 Another researcher found however, no changes in cell excitability and no epileptic discharges in ALC- treated rats exposed to high-frequency stimulation.19 From the clinical and experimental research, it seems prudent to:

  • Administer ALC with food;
  • Inform patients that ALC may modify ETOH tolerance;
  • Inform patients/families of potential agitation, nausea or vomiting; and
  • Screen for epileptic history if ALC is to be used I.V.

Conclusions

As ALC is easily transported across the blood-brain barrier, multiple benefits in CNS function have been observed in human studies. Models of aging, stroke, AlzheimerÍs dementia, diabetic neuropathy and neuropeptide release have been positively influenced by ALC administration. Acetyl-L-Carnitine is able to exert profound effects on some depressed patients with high cortisol levels and participates in immunomodulatory mechanisms which hold promise in the treatment of HIV infection. ALC modifies ethanol metabolism in animal models; paradoxically increasing the half-life of ethanol while decreasing hepatic damage.

Because of ALCÍs excellent tolerability, with infrequent and often temporary side effects, it has great potential of being a safe and efficacious therapeutic compound. Oral doses from 1.5 grams to 3.0 grams per day are typically in the therapeutic range for most conditions, the I.M. route was used for treatment of neuropathy. Although many of ALCÍs effects overlap those of L-Carnitine, the vast experience with the simpler compound in ischemic heart disease should not be abandoned. For conditions regarding CNS and neuronal damage, the L-Acetyl form of carnitine is clearly superior. With additional research and clinical trials, future applications of ALC hold exciting promise in the practice of complementary medicine.

</h4abstract<>

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2003/08/030801081754.htm

RHAM, N.C. – A startling scientific discovery about nutrition demonstrates that we are more than what we eat: we are likely what our mothers ate, too, according to scientists at the Duke Comprehensive Cancer Center.

  1. Related Articles

In a study of nutrition’s effects on development, the scientists showed they could change the coat color of baby mice simply by feeding their mothers four common nutritional supplements before and during pregnancy and lactation. Moreover, these four supplements lowered the offspring’s susceptibility to obesity, diabetes and cancer.

Results of the study are published in and featured on the cover of the Aug. 1, 2003, issue of Molecular and Cellular Biology.

“We have long known that maternal nutrition profoundly impacts disease susceptibility in their offspring, but we never understood the cause-and-effect link,” said Randy Jirtle, Ph.D., professor of radiation oncology at Duke and senior investigator of the study. “For the first time ever, we have shown precisely how nutritional supplementation to the mother can permanently alter gene expression in her offspring without altering the genes themselves.”

In the Duke experiments, pregnant mice that received dietary supplements with vitamin B12, folic acid, choline and betaine (from sugar beets) gave birth to babies predominantly with brown coats. In contrast, pregnant mice that did not receive the nutritional supplements gave birth predominantly to mice with yellow coats. The non-supplemented mothers were not deficient in these nutrients.

A study of the cellular differences between the groups of baby mice showed that the extra nutrients reduced the expression of a specific gene, called Agouti, to cause the coat color change. Yet the Agouti gene itself remained unchanged.

Just how the babies’ coat colors changed without their Agouti gene being altered is the most exciting part of their research, said Jirtle. The mechanism that enabled this permanent color change – called “DNA methylation” — could potentially affect dozens of other genes that make humans and animals susceptible to cancer, obesity, diabetes, and even autism, he said.

“Our study demonstrates how early environmental factors can alter gene expression without mutating the gene itself,” said Rob Waterland, Ph.D., a research fellow in the Jirtle laboratory and lead author of the study. “The implications for humans are huge because methylation is a common event in the human genome, and it is clearly a malleable effect that is subject to subtle changes in utero.”

During DNA methylation, a quartet of atoms — called a methyl group – attaches to a gene at a specific point and alters its function. Methylation leaves the gene itself unchanged. Instead, the methyl group conveys a message to silence the gene or reduce its expression inside a given cell. Such an effect is referred to as “epigenetic” because it occurs over and above the gene sequence without altering any of the letters of the four-unit genetic code.

In the treated mice, one or several of the four nutrients caused the Agouti gene to become methylated, thereby reducing its expression – and potentially that of other genes, as well. Moreover, the methylation occurred early during gestation, as evidenced by its widespread manifestation throughout cells in the liver, brain, kidney and tail.

“Our data suggest these changes occur early in embryonic development, before one would even be aware of the pregnancy,” said Jirtle. “Any environmental condition that impacts these windows in early development can result in developmental changes that are life-long, some of them beneficial and others detrimental.”

If such epigenetic alterations occur in the developing sperm or eggs, they could even be passed on to the next generation, potentially becoming a permanent change in the family line, added Jirtle. In fact, data gathered by Swedish researcher Gunnar Kaati and colleagues indicates just such a multi-generational effect. In that study of nutrition in the late 1800s, boys who reached adolescence (when sperm are reaching maturity) during years of bountiful crop yield produced a lineage of grandchildren with a significantly higher rate of diabetes. No cause-and-effect link was established, but Jirtle suspects epigenetic alterations could underlie this observation.

Humans and other animals are susceptible to epigenetic changes because of an evolutionary trait in which “junk” remnants of viral infections, called “transposons,” inserted themselves randomly within the human and animal genomes. Transposons use the gene replication machinery to reproduce themselves. Cells use methylation as a means to inactivate these junk transposons and prevent their replication. Yet if the transposons have inserted themselves in or near a functional gene, the gene can be inadvertently methylated, too, thereby reducing its expression.

The scientists demonstrated that such inadvertent methylation occurred at the Agouti gene when the mice were fed the nutrients. The four nutrients encourage methylation because they possess chemicals that donate methyl groups within cells. Thus, they are primed to methylate susceptible sites in the genome. In fact, more than 40 percent of the human genome is comprised of transposons that are likely to be methylated, so any genes positioned near them could be at risk for inadvertent methylation.

“We used a model system to test the hypothesis that early nutrition can affect phenotype through methylation changes,” said Jirtle. “Our data confirmed the hypothesis and demonstrated that seemingly innocuous nutrients could have unintended effects, either negative or positive, on our genetic expression.”

For example, methylation that occurs near or within a tumor suppressor gene can silence its anti-cancer activity, said Jirtle. Similarly, methylation may have silenced genes other than Agouti in the present study – genes that weren’t analyzed for potential methylation. And, the scientists do not know which of the four nutrients alone or in combination caused methylation of the Agouti gene.

Herein lies the uncertainty of nutrition’s epigenetic effects on cells, said Jirtle. Folic acid is a staple of prenatal vitamins, used to prevent neural tube defects like spina bifida. Yet excess folic acid could methylate a gene and silence its expression in a detrimental manner, as well. The data simply don’t exist to show each nutrient’s cellular effects.

Moreover, methylating a single gene can have multiple effects. For example, the Agouti gene regulates more than just coat color. Mice that over-express the Agouti protein tend to be obese and susceptible to diabetes because the protein also binds with a receptor in the hypothalamus and interferes with the signal to stop eating. Methylating the Agouti gene in mice, therefore, also reduces their susceptibility to obesity, diabetes and cancer.

Hence, the researchers stress the importance of understanding the molecular effects of nutrition on cells, not just the outward manifestations of it.

“Diet, nutritional supplements and other seemingly innocuous compounds can alter the development in utero to such an extent that it changes the offspring’s characteristics for life, and potentially that of future generations,” said Waterland. “Nutritional epigenetics could, for example, explain the differences between genetically identical twins, or the disparities in the incidence of stroke between the South and the North. The possibilities are endless.”

http://www.coenzyme-a.com/coenzyme-a_and%20coq10_connection_article.html

-A, and the Coenzyme Q10 Connection

by Nickolaos D. Skouras, PhD.

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), which is also known as ubiquinone, is one form of a substance known as coenzyme Q, which is found in all plant and animal cells. Coenzyme Q10 is the form used for energy production in humans and it can be made from some of the other forms of coenzyme Q in your diet.

Natural Coenzyme Q10 sources

Coenzyme Q is found in all plant and animal cells. Some coenzyme Q10 is made in the body, particularly in the liver, and some is obtained from food. The production process is a complex one involving around 15 different reactions. It is not clear how much coenzyme Q10 from the diet contributes to body stores, but evidence suggests that dietary coenzyme Q10 is an important source.

The average person may consume around 5 mg of coenzyme Q10 per day. The main sources are meat, fish and vegetable oils. Soybean, sesame and canola oils are high in CoQ10. Wheat germ, rice bran and soybeans contain reasonable amounts of coenzyme Q10, but vegetables contain relatively little; although spinach and broccoli may be quite good sources.

Interactions with other nutrients

Coenzyme Q10 synthesis requires vitamins B6, C, B12, folic acid, riboflavin, niacin, and pantothenic acid. Coenzyme-A is required to initiate the chemical reactions that involve the body’s ability to utilize coenzyme Q10. In other words, if Coenzyme-A is not present in sufficient amounts then the human body cannot utilize coenzyme Q10.

Coenzyme Q10 supplements

Coenzyme Q10 is available in tablets and capsules. Oil-based supplements may be the best absorbed form. The amount of coenzyme Q10 available from dietary sources is likely to be insufficient to produce the clinical effects of high dose coenzyme Q10. Coenzyme Q10 may take up to four to eight weeks to build up to peak concentration in the body, and it may take several weeks of daily dosing to see noticeable effects.

Therapeutic uses of Coenzyme Q10 supplements

Increasing scientific evidence suggests that coenzyme Q10 is a safe and effective therapy for a wide range of cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, high blood pressure, mitral valve prolapse and angina. It has also been used to treat patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Coenzyme Q10 appears to exert its beneficial effects both by improving energy production and by acting as an antioxidant.

Interactions with drugs

Drugs known as beta blockers, which are used to treat high blood pressure and some other types of cardiovascular disease, have been shown to interfere with the production and function of coenzyme -A, and Co-Q10, and to adversely affect heart function. This may explain why, in some cases, long-term therapy with beta blockers can lead to congestive heart failure. Coenzyme-A, and Coenzyme Q10 therapy in combination with beta blockers may be very beneficial.

In recent years, the drugs lovastatin, pravastatin, and simvastatin have become widely used to treat high blood cholesterol. These medications work by inhibiting an enzyme known as HMG-CoA reductase, and they are very effective in lowering cholesterol levels. However, this enzyme is also responsible for production of both the Coenzyme-A and the Coenzyme Q10. Because of this, the cholesterol-lowering effect of these drugs is accompanied by an equivalent lowering of both Coenzyme-A and Coenzyme Q10 levels. Coenzyme-A and Coenzyme Q10 supplements may help to prevent some of the adverse effects of these widely used drugs.

http://www.coenzyme-a.com/NOPAL%20Rx.html

NOPAL RX ANTI-INFLAMMATORY SERUM

by Nickolaos D. Skouras, PhD.

Introduction

NOPAL Rx Anti-Inflammatory Serum Introduction

The word “SCIENCE” comes from the GREEK word meaning “to know”. Yet it seems that the more we learn from nature, the more that it defines the boundaries of what we really do not know!

A relative new discovery has merged; these functional ingredients in nature react in a way that science previously did not know was possible. These functional super nutrients are called Betalains. Upon further research science discovered that the protein bound structure in Betalains is not only beneficial but it is vital for human life! There are twenty four Betalains that are found naturally occurring, and each and every one completes a specific need in human health by supplying structure and function to every human cell.

A human cell distressed by external toxins and or internal deficiencies will eventually wither and collapse and eventually die. This is clinically called Sarcopenia.

When toxins accumulate or trauma injures a cell, chronic inflammation is certain to appear as a natural response. Inflammation in the human body is a natural Immune system response to damaged tissue or to infection from a foreign invader. Today we know that Chronic Inflammation is at the root of the most feared diseases such as Chronic Joint Pain, Cardiovascular Disease, Blood sugar imbalances and Diabetes, Cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and even most forms of Gum Disease.

The naturally occurring Betalains can be used to restore and strengthen the cellular wall. This leads to Rehydration and cellular homeostasis. Coenzyme ATM Catalyzed Betalains not only restore cellular health but they also work with the body to neutralize toxins by supporting and initiating your natural detoxification processes as well as draining away accumulations of toxic waste. The scientifically validated benefits to date are over 250-clinical papers that have been published on the benefits and attributes of NOPAL Cactus fruit concentrates in the highest quality, peer-reviewed scientific journals. These journals are also supported by the United States National Institutes Health Database.

Only our proprietary formula contains Coenzyme ATM The master enzyme and universal Catalyst. Concentrated Betalains (all 24) can only be found in the NOPA Cactus Fruit (Prickly Pear) of the Sonoran Desert. This is because the Sonoran Desert is the most extreme desert in the world and therefore the NOPAL plant needs all 24 Betalains in order to survive in this intense environment.

Our Super Concentrated Serum has been especially formulated that the BETALAINS absorb directly into the bloodstream through the mucus membrane under the tongue. This is a much faster and more direct pathway of administration than taken orally through the stomach as it has to survive the passage through the gastrointestinal tract, which risks degrading by the stomachs acids, bile and digestive enzymes.

In comparison to the most popular NOPALEA Super Fruit Wellness Drink. Our NOPAL Fruit Super Concentrate Serum 5.1 0z. (30-serving) Container is equivalent to Five 32 oz. NOPALEA juice containers at the MSRP of $199.95

BENEFITS

  • Reduces Pain an d Chronic Inflammation
  • Contains All 1,100 Know Protein Bound Bioflavonoids
  • Contains All 24- BETALAINS Rare Anti-Oxidants which restore Cellular Health
  • Supports Healthy Immune System
  • Cellular Detoxification
  • Relieves Many Types of Pain
  • Promotes Optimal Cellular Health
  • Catalyzed by Coenzyme A
  • Super Concentrated Serum
  • Restores “Whole Body” Energy and Vitality

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